# Geometry & spatial reasoning

*Geometry *originates from Greek* ge or gaia *- meaning earth or land and *metria* meaning measuring, or measurement of earth or land.

*Analytic geometry* is the combination of geometry and algebra.

*Relative position* is used to locate objects in space with distance and directions.

*Spatial representations*

## Knowledge base & tools to develop mathematical literacy

### Knowledge base

The mathematical knowledge base includes concepts necessary for learners to conceptualize to become mathemtically literate and misconceptions that must be over come. Particularly important for geometry and spatial reasoning include:

- Geometry conceptual knowledge base
- Representation & spatial reasoning conceptual knowledge base
- Geometry vocabulary - lists of vocabulary for primary, middle, & upper levels.

### Information on the development of literacy in geometry & spatial reasoning & tools to achieve it

Background information for learning and teaching.

- Spatial and visual representations, abilities, & literacy - article
- Stages of geometric thinking - Pierre and Dina van Hiele' levels of geometric thinking in a chart
- Developmental sequence of geometric ability
- Longitudinal development of volume at the middle level - short article
- Visual and spatial reasoning - article includes visual thinking, related careers, research, skills, perception, memory, creative, six modes of visual learning (developed by the Polaroid Education Program), & instructional activities to develop visual spatial abilities

## Activities to facilitate geometry & visual spatial literacy

- Assorted activity suggestions - No Work sheet or detailed explanation: topics include: Volume, Area, Visualization ...
- Area & perimeter asseassment - Work sheet with seven direct assessment questions. It defines a hexaright shape, which is used to assess the depth of understanding of area, perimeter and their relationships.
- Area & perimeter - pools and sidewalks - Work sheet patterns, relationships, & functions with area and perimeter
- Earth's Circumference, Eratosthenes, Astronomy, Solstices, Equinoxes, Latitude, Science, and Math - Background information and work sheet with instructions to calculate circumference of the Earth.
- Metatrons Cube and Platonic Solids - Link to external site
- Pythagoras theorem - Explanation sheet to justify a
^{2}+ b^{2}= c with 1. Area model & 2. lengths of sides model - Relative position & topology - Work sheet to identify: in, on, out, for 3d & 2d pictures, & draw the 5 shapes. Age: preschool - first grade
- Tessellation - Work sheet: How to make a tessellation
- Ruler and compass constructions
- Cross sections

## Puzzles, challenges, & work sheets

- Broken Square Puzzle 4 pieces - Work sheet to make a square & solution
- Broken Tee puzzle 1 - Work sheet to make a capital T & solution
- Broken Tee puzzle 2 - Work sheet to make another capital T & solution
- Five piece green square - Work sheet to make a square & solution
- Triangles in the shapes puzzle - Work sheet to find triangles & hints
- Squares and triangles - Work sheet to find squares & triangles
- Tangrams - Directions for folding & cutting a square sheet of paper or oak tag to make the Tangrams
- Tangram puzzles - Work sheet to record fifteen different geometric shapes made with Tangrams
- Tangrams - Work sheetpattern with Tangram pieces in a square
- Four name word puzzle - Work sheet & puzzle
- Fractional parts of a subdivided square Challenge - Work sheet to find & record halves, fourths, eights, & sixteenths of a square with inscribed shapes
- Pentominoes - Describes Pentominoes shapes, history, and puzzles
- How many squares - Cooperative learning work sheet with puzzle that has 40 squares. Also for team building.
- Pattern block star challenge - Work sheet to find the angles of a trapezoid, triangle, parallelogram, and see if they can combine to make a perfect circle. Find what the Angles and Lengths of the Sides are in this
- Surveilence camera puzzle - Work sheet determine the best placement of cameras to surveil eight streets.
- Printable cube pattern - Work sheet

*Page Overview*:

- Geometry & spatial reasoning definitions
- Knowledge base & tools to develop mathematical literacy
- Activities to develop learning
- Puzzles

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*Other development & activities pages*:

Process dimensions:

*Content dimensions*:

- Number value and operations (addition & subtraction, multiplication & division)
- Algebra & patterns
- Geometry spatial reasoning
- Data Analysis, Probability, Ratio, and Proportion
- Measurement

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*Geometry* is the science of correct reasoning on incorrect figures.

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