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Science knowledge base

We’re alarmed at the erosion of scientific legitimacy and authority, because it’s so crucial to solving the world’s problems. Alan Brandt

Science literacy is important for the survival of the human species. We must constantly be skeptical about claims that are more junk science, pseudoscience, conspiracy theories, hoaxes, brainwashing, or propaganda.


It’s not the theories themselves that are the problem; it’s that they look true, but aren’t. Worse is when unfounded and false information is presented as scientific to skew the truth or blatantly lie. It can cause real damage in the world due to powerful emotional, political, and cultural influence. Michael Gordon


A science knowledge base provides information for science literacy. Information organized as concepts, misconceptions, outcomes, and standards to develop a conceptual framework of science literacy for critical thinking.


Information organized in five dimensions:

  1. Habits of mind, attitudes, values, & dispositions to attain positive scientific practices
  2. Inquiry practices
  3. Processes & process skills
  4. Content areas: Physical, Life, Earth & space
  5. Perspectives: Engineering & technology, personal & social, history of science, nature of science.


Suggestions to counter junk science, pseudoscience, conspiracy theories, & hoaxes.


Dimensions of science


Inquiry practices, processes, & skills

Scientific Inquiry - asking questions, carrying out investigations, questioning, experimenting, & explaining. Ethnographic and experimental investigations

Processes & skills in science practices

Cross-cutting skills & unified processes


Content Areas of Science

Physical Science

Life Science concepts

  • Organisms (Bacteria, Eukaryota (plants, animals (human anatomy), fungi,), Archaea)

    • Structure & Function (Behavior, Adaptation, Diversity, Disease
    • Growth & Development (Reproduction, Life cycles,
    • Organization of Matter & Energy flow (
    • Information Processing (Interactions, Adaptation, Relationships, Social Interactions and Group Behavior
    • Human organisms/anatomy - Human identity; Anatomy (structure) & basic functions of life, growth, & development; Health & safety, disease physical, mental/emotional, distress and treatment
    • Humans and Animals compared ...

    Ecosystems (Populations, Environmental factors, Environments,

    • Interdependent Relationships in their Environment & Ecosystems
    • Matter & Energy Flow, Transfer & Cycles
    • Dynamics, Functions, & Resilience
    • Social Interactions & Group Behavior ( Interdependent Functions Relationships & Resilience


    • Inheritance of Traits
    • Variation of Traits


    • Evidence of Common Ancestry (Unity) & Diversity
    • Natural Selection
    • Adaptations
    • Biodiversity and Humans

Earth and Space Science

  • The Earth - Its materials and their uses, forces of change, systems, water and the Earth's surface, fossils and biogeology; human activity, resources, hazards, impacts, climate change
  • Earth's Atmosphere - Atmosphere, Water Cycle, Weather, season, & climates
  • Earth's History - properties of Earth, its evolution, plate tectonics, its place in the universe
  • Space and astronomy - the Earth beyond its atmosphere, stars
  • Solar -


Perspectives of Science

Engineering & Technology

  • Engineering design defining and delimiting problems, developing solutions, optimizing solutions
  • Technology and Science linking engineering, technology, and science
  • Technology design, systems, and information processing information technology and instrumentation
  • Issues in Technology linking engineering, technology, and science to society and the natural world

Personal and Social

  • Science's relationship to personal and social decisions: health, safety, natural hazards, and risks. See Human organism for background information

History of Science

Nature of Science

  • Subject, perspective, and social nature


What is fringe science, junk science, or pseudosceince?

Fringe science, junk science, pseudoscience, conspiracy theories, … They have five properties:

  1. Don’t change, advance, evolve over time.
  2. Don’t provide and testable evidence
  3. Are theories that can't in anyway be tested to prove or disprove the theory.
  4. Ignores contrary evidence.
  5. Based solely or entirely on belief. Want it to be true - Bigfoot.


Suggestions to evaluate science information:

  1. Is it peer-reviewed?
  2. Who did the study? For profit company …
  3. Who funded the research? Mega corporation …
  4. What procedures were used? Sample size, methods, animals, humans,
  5. Do the results support the conclusions
  6. Do other studies agree?


See also suggestions realted to propaganda.



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Science concepts

  1. Habits of mind, attitudes, values, & dispositions for good science
  2. Inquiry Practices
    • Investigation
    • Questioning
    • Experimenting
    • Explaining
  3. Process skills
    • Process skills used in the practice of science investigation
    • Cross cutting skills or unified processes used in science practice
  4. Content
  5. Perspectives of science
    • Engineering & Technology
    • Personal & social
    • History of science
    • Nature of science

Suggestions to counter conspiracy theories, junk science, hoaxes, & pseudoscience



Space walk

Bruce McCandless untethered space walk. 2/12/1984.



The mechanics of evolution are responsible for every single creature that lives on the face of the Earth; and ever has or ever will.