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Matter - properties, states, density, interactions, and nuclear Concepts

Primary

Properties of Matter Concepts

  1. Objects have many observable properties, including color, texture, size, weight, shape, temperature, and the ability to interact with other objects.
  2. Objects are described and identified by their properties.
  3. Objects can be separated or sorted into groups of objects or materials by their properties.
  4. Properties can be observed better with scientific tools, such as hand lenses to see small objects, using similar objects as measuring devices, and body parts to sense temperature.

States of Matter Concepts

  1. Materials exist in different states- solid, liquid, and gas.
  2. Different states have different properties.
  3. Solids maintain there shape. However, they can be in all sizes and shapes.
  4. They maintain their shapes as they are moved (rotated, poured...)
  5. Solids can support denser materials on their surfaces.
  6. Solids can be separated by screens.
  7. Some solids change when mixed with water (dissolve) others form a layer below or above the surface.
  8. Liquids pour and flow.
  9. When liquids are put in a container they will take the shape of their container from the bottom up with the surface parallel to the surface of the Earth.
  10. Liquids can have properties of transparent, translucent, opaque, viscous, free flowing, foamy.
  11. Gases will spread throughout its container or dissipate and flow from an opening in the container.
  12. Gases are matter. (Take up space and have mass)
  13. Heating or cooling can change some common materials, such as water.

Density of Matter Concepts

  1. Some materials float and others sink.

Matter and Interactions of Matter Concepts

  1. Objects can be identified by the materials from which they are made.
  2. Objects may be made of one or more materials (paper, cloth, wood, clay, and metal).
  3. Interactions can change some materials properties.
  4. Not all materials change in the same way when interacting with other objects.

Intermediate

  1. Properties of Matter Concepts

    1. Objects have many observable properties, including color, texture, size, shape, mass, volume, temperature, and the ability to interact with other objects.
    2. Properties can be measured with scientific tools and compared to a standard unit (linear, time, temperature, mass, and volume)

    States of Matter Concepts

    1. Heating and cooling changes the properties of some materials.
    2. Water expands when it freezes and contracts when it melts. As a result ice floats. Cold water sinks to the bottom of warmer water.
    3. Many changes of matter occur faster when heated.

    Density of Matter Concepts

    1. Objects float or sink in relation to their mass, shape, and size.
    2. Density isn't the same as mass.
    3. Density isn't the same as volume.
    4. Density isn't the same as size.
    5. Equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses.

    Matter and Interactions of Matter Concepts

    1. A substance has properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility, that are independent of the amount of the sample.
    2. A mixture of substances often can be separated into the original substances using one or more of the characteristic properties.
    3. The mass of a system is equal to the sum of its subsystems.
    4. Materials are composed of particles that are too small to see without magnification.
    5. Many changes of matter occur faster when heated.

Middle School

  1. Properties of Matter Concepts

    1. Objects have many observable properties, including color, texture, size, shape, mass, volume, density, temperature, chemical, energy, and the ability to interact with other objects.
    2. Properties can be measured with scientific tools and compared to a standard unit (linear, time, temperature, mass, volume, and density)

    States of Matter Concepts

    1. Exchange of thermal energy causes the change of the state of matter.
    2. Solids are closely locked in position and can only vibrate.
    3. Liquids are more loosely connected and slide past each other and some gain energy and escape as a gas.
    4. Gases have more energy of motion and are free of one another except for collisions.
    5. Matter is in continual motion and as it gains heat energy it usually expands and as it looses energy it usually contracts.
    6. When matter changes state there is a significant exchange of latent heat and volume change.

    Density of Matter Concepts

    1. Objects float or sink relative to their density and capacity.
    2. Density is equal to mass divided by volume. The ratio of mass to volume.
    3. Water has a density of 1 g/ml or 1 g/cc.
    4. Any density greater than 1 will sink in water.
    5. Any density less than 1 will float in water.

    Matter and Interactions of Matter Concepts

    1. Substances react chemically with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different properties.
    2. In chemical reactions, the total mass is conserved.
    3. Substances often are placed in categories or groups if they react in similar ways; metals are an example of such a group.
    4. All matter is made from atoms that are alike and different and combine to compose all substances.
    5. Chemical elements do not break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as heating, exposure to electric current, or reaction with acids.
    6. There are more than 100 know elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds, which account for the living and nonliving substances.

    Matter and Nuclear Reactions

    1. In most nuclear reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system.
    2. Heat, light, mechanical motion, or electricity might all be involved in such transfers.

Dr. Robert Sweetland's Notes ©