# Electricity Concepts

## Initial perceptual naive misconceptions (any age)

### Misconceptions (Explanations, Naive understanding, Misconceptions, or Perceptual responses)

#### Static

1. Static electricity is the opposite of current electricity.
2. Static electircal charge is really magnetism.

#### Current

1. A thing you plug something into.
2. Stuff in the wires.
3. Electricity flows like water in a pipe to the receiver. Only needs one wire.
4. Flows from negative to positive. Negative side of the battery to the bulb to the positive side of the battery through the stuff in the battery and back to the negative side.
5. Electricity is not energy.
6. Batteries make, create electricity. or chemicals in batteries make it.
7. Generators make, create electricity
8. Electrons flow at the speed of light.
9. Electricity leaves one battery plate and returns to the other.
10. There is positive and negative electricity that come from the battery and meet in the light bulb to make light.
11. Nothing returns to the battery.
12. The battery has the electrons, electricity there are none in the wires or receiver.
13. Is not on the electromagnetic spectrum.
14. Each electron carries energy
15. Conductors allow charges to pass.
16. Electricity is used up by the receiver. Doesn’t complete the circuit. Like water flowing from hose or pipe.
17. Water, coal, oil, nuclear power causes electricity.
18. Electricity vibrates in the wires until it is used.
19. Electric companies supply electrons to your house.
20. Insulation holds electricity in like the walls of a pipe for water. Causes the electricity to turn corners.
21. If the switch is on electricity is flowing. Even if no receiver, bulb in socket, TV off…

#### Electro-magnetism

1. Only magnets have magnetic fields.

## Intermediate (7 years - 11 years)

### Concepts

#### Static electricity

1. Static electricity is created by friction.
2. Objects with static charges can attract or repel. (++ or -- repel) (+- or -+ attract).

#### Current

1. Electricity is a flow of energy through a source and through a receiver in a closed path.
2. Electricity can be transferred from a source to a receiver. A closed circuit creates a transfer of electricity, an open circuit does not.
3. A switch is used to open and close a circuit.
4. A fuse or circuit breaker opens a closed circuit for protection when a circuit overheats.
5. Light bulbs in a series circuit will go out if one is unscrewed.
6. Light bulbs in a parallel circuit will remain lit when another is unscrewed.
7. Electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, sound, and magnetic effects.
8. Electrical energy can be produced from heat, light, magnetism, and chemical energy.
9. Electricity flows easily through a conductor and flows with difficulty in a conductor.

## Literate (11+)

### Concepts

#### Static electricity

1. Static electricity is an electrical charge produced by friction.
2. All matter is made of particles (electrons, protons, neutrons)
3. Electrons move from one atom to the next.
4. Usually matter has the same number of protons (+)and electrons (-) that result in a neutral charged.
5. Electrons are moved by rubbing.
6. Electrons can be moved in either direction depending on the material of the objects being rubbed.
7. More electrons than protons cause a negative charge, less electrons than protons cause a positive charge.
8. Objects with different charges can attract or repel (++ or -- repel) (+- or -+ attract).

#### Current

1. Electricity is the flow of electrons through a closed circuit that contains at least one source, receiver, and conducting path through which the electrons flow.
2. Electrical energy is the attraction or repulsion of charges.
3. Electricity and magnetism can exert a force on each other. Resistance reduces the flow of electricity.
4. The flow of electricity is related to the charges and the resistance (Ohm's law).
5. The flow of electricity in a series circuit is like ...
6. The flow of electricity in a parallel circuit is like...