Six Step Behavior Management Plan

Six Steps

  1. Collect information.
  2. Context analysis - Analyze the information from all the different sources and make connections between them.
  3. Explain possible causes of the behavior and reasoning to justify them.
  4. Identify a goal for a new behavior, or behavior modifications, and a rationale for why the student might achieve it.
  5. Create an intervention procedure to achieve the goal.
  6. Evaluate and modify the intervention as necessary.

1. Collect information

Attain perceptions of the behavioral or instructional issue or question

Perceptions of the teacher. Makes observations, reflect, and record a rigorous description of the behavior. It is human nature to consider why behaviors occur in a given context, but our initial conclusions may not be accurate. For maximum student benefit it is essential the teacher’s perception of the issue or instructional question is valid so appropriate goals and interventions are selected. Questions to consider:

Perceptions of the student are also important to consider. A non-directive interview where the interviewer mirrors the student’s thoughts and comments through reflective comments (Rogers, 1971) can be a successful way to gain the student’s perceptions of what the teacher or others do, what the student does, andhow the interactions with each other relate to the issue.

Perceptions of other people.

Perceptions of other contributing sources.

2. Context analysis - Analyze information from the sources and make connections between them.

  1. What do you believe causes the onset?
  2. How long does it last?
  3. What is its intensity?
  4. Is it increasing or decreasing?
  5. What interventions have there been and what have been the consequences?

Record a detailed observation of events as an anecdotal record, or an antecedent-behavior-consequence chart.

Example of an Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) Chart

Antecedent
What happens before a behavior

Behavior
Behavior after the antecedent

Consequence
Behavior after the Behavior
Teacher asks about assignment. "Where is your assignment?' Student replies she does not have it. "I don't have it." Teacher asks again for clarification. "Why don't you have it?"
Teacher asks for clarification. "Why don't you have it?" Student clarifies, 'I didn't know what to do." Teacher asks why. "Why didn't you know what to do?"
Teacher asks why. "Why didn't you know what to do?" Student replies, "Because I didn't understand it in class and and I don't know any adults who understood it either." Class laughs.
Teacher tells student she will take a zero. Student replies, "It isn't fair." Teacher sends student to office. "You know your plan says if you don't come to class prepared, then you have to report to the office."
Teacher sends student to office. "You know your plan says if you don't come to class prepared, then you have to report to the office." Student states she'd rather go to the office. "I'd rather be there than here." Student leaves.

Analyze the context of the information collected.

Teacher related analysis:

Student related analysis:

Task related analysis:

Environmental related analysis:

Analysis of communication. Types of communication to consider for possible effects include:

Requests for this followed by a refusal may cause this behavior to create statements to explain interactions for ...
Attention Protests verbally Events
Social interaction Says no or stop Objects
Play Swears Agreeing
Affection Acts out physically hits bites Greeting
Permission Runs away Humor
Assistance Pouts Feelings
Additional information or clarification Freezes Stress
Objects Remain silent Confusion
Non inclusion   Requests

 

3. Explain possible causes of the behavior and reasoning to justify them

Use the information collected and explain possible causes of the behavior, which will be referenced to justify intervention goals and procedures to achieve any change.

Examples for relating theory and other ideas to derive causes and explanations

Ideas to explain the causes of the behavior can originate from one source or be a combination of ideas from different sources as explained by models and theories of behavior. see notes on motivation to self-efficacy. Quick summary:

  1. Alderman's Model of Motivation (1990).
  2. Dreikur’s and Cassel’s (1972) four reasons students misbehave: 1) to gain attention, 2) to control, 3) because they have not yet learned an alternative, or 4) because of immaturity or lack of readiness.
  3. Driekur's theory helps to identify possible causes of a student's "problem" by the way the teacher feels after the behavior. Annoyance, the nature of the behavior is probably attention getting. Threatened, the issue is probably one of control. Feeling the need to teach may signify that a student has not yet learned an alternative behavior, and Helplessness suggests immaturity.
  4. William Glasser's Choice Theory can help identify causes that might be based on why students are making limiting choices. To gain: 1) love, 2) power, 3) freedom, 4) fun, and 5) survival.
  5. James G. Wilson theory from Moral Sense might relate cause to four moral senses Wilson believes all people have: 1) sympathy, 2) fairness, 3) self-control, and 4) duty.

Example

Mary gets excited when she knows an answer or is about to participate in an activity where she has a high level of interest. She speaks loudly, out of turn, and when students correct her or object she does not have the social skill or maturity to accept their suggestions and criticisms. She usually gets frustrated, crosses her arms, looks down and withdraws quietly. Other students do little to include her, because they are embarrassed by her actions and tend to avoid her. The student might be said to be immature or she has not learned self-control and social skills.

4. Identify a goal for a new behavior, or behavior modifications, and rationale for why the student might achieve it.

Use the connections of ideas along with possible causes, explanations, and reasoning to create a goal for mastery oriented behaviors the student could choose in place of the non conventional behaviors or for altering the non conventional behaviors to change along with the reasoning for the student to accept a change and implement it to create master-oriented behaviors with self-efficacy.

Sample.

The teacher will talk and work with Mary to emphasis the value of being excited about participating in learning. The teacher will model and help her role play socially accepted ways to interact with her peers to share her enthusiasm without being abrasive or infringing on others desire to participate. The teacher will also discuss with the guidance counselor to possibly include stress reduction techniques, self-awareness, relaxation techniques, goal setting, development of self-efficacy, and increased self-control. The teacher will also work with other students on how to encourage and support each other’s learning. When Mary learns that she can be enthusiastically involved in learning and share her enthusiasm with her peers and they with her, she and they will be motivated to continue to explore new ways to learn and achieve together to increase everyones self-efficacy.

5. Describe how to implement an intervention to learn conventional behaviors and achieve successful results.

The behavior changes in the goal for change require a plan. The plan should be created with the student as much as possible and have several elements. These include:

6. Evaluate and modify the intervention as necessary.

To evaluate the success of the interventions expected outcomes must be identified.

Outcomes that include what you want the student to do are more important than what you do not want the student to do. That doesn’t mean that it isn’t appropriate to collect data with the purpose to show a decrease in unconventional behaviors. However, to better insure success it is important to identify the mastery oriented behaviors to be taught. Then to be more positive it would be necessary to collect data on the positive.

This tracking can be done with anecdotal records or quantitative records starting with baseline data and recording additional data periodically until a target rate is achieved.

To evaluate quantitative data, first, collect data for the baseline. Collect data for 3-5 days or until the data is steady. Some observations that could be recorded are the level of assistance needed to complete the tasks, the frequency and duration of a behavior, percentage of correct items, positive comments to others, positive contributions to discussions, percentage of assignments completed, the amount of time participating positively in a discussion, and playing without incident on the playground. The amount of time between baseline and the change in performance represented on a graph gives a clear picture of the success or lack of success of the interventions. The independent variable, or the manipulated variable, (generally duration of time) goes on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable, or responding variable, (generally behavior) goes on the vertical axis.

 

Worksheets in Chart Format

1. Collection of Information
Invented Student name:
Birthday:
Primary care giver(s):
Behavioral or instructional issue: Date: Team members:
Teacher perceptions


Student perceptions Other people's perceptions Perceptions from other sources

 

2. Context analysis - Analyze information from the sources and make connections between them.
Antecedent-Behavior analysis Teacher related analysis




Student related analysis:
Task related analysis




Environmental related analysis




Biopsychosocial analysis




Analysis of communication

 

3. Explain possible causes of the behavior and reasoning to justify them

Possible causes of the behavior and rationale to support them.

 

4. Identify a goal for a new behavior, or behavior modifications, and rationale for why the student might achieve it.

Goal and outcomes for new behavior or behavior modification


Rational for success


Reason to believe it will provide self-efficacy

 

5. Describe how to implement an intervention to learn conventional behaviors and achieve successful results.
Describe how the intervention can draw support to
Address any known biopsychosocial issues.
Develop intrinsic motivation, self-worth, and self-efficacy.

 

Initiate, achieve, and sustain home support for change. Develop self-efficacy.
Provide curriculum, instruction, and task support for the change.

 

Communicate necessary information to facilitate the change. Become self-regulated.
Provide an environment to support and maintain the change. Generalized the behavior to other settings. Provide social relations that support change.
Intervention (sequence steps, methods, resources...) (Person(s) responsible) (Next evaluation date)











 

6. Evaluation Information
Outcomes for success

 

Evaluation plan



Possible modifications

 

Worksheets in Outline Format

Invented Student name:

Birthday:
Primary care giver(s):
Behavioral or instructional issue:
Date:
Team members:

1. Collect information

Teacher perceptions

Student perceptions

Other people's perceptions

Perceptions of other sources

 

2. Context analysis - Analyze information from the sources and make connections between them.

Antecedent-Behavior analysis

Teacher related analysis

Student related analysis

Task related analysis

Environmental related analysis

Analysis of communication

 

3. Explain possible causes of the behavior and reasoning to justify each cause

Possible causes of the behavior and rationale to support them.

 

4. Identify a goal for a new behavior, or behavior modifications, and rationale for why the student might achieve it.

Goal and outcomes for new behavior or behavior modification

Rational for success

Reason to believe it will provide self-efficacy

 

5. Describe how to implement an intervention to learn conventional behaviors and achieve successful results.

Describe how the intervention can draw support to

  1. Address any known biopsychosocial issues.
  2. Develop intrinsic motivation, self-worth, and self-efficacy.
  3. Initiate, achieve, and sustain home support for change.
  4. Develop self-efficacy.
  5. Provide curriculum, instruction, and task support for the change.
  6. Communicate necessary information to facilitate the change.
  7. Become self-regulated.
  8. Provide an environment to support and maintain the change.
  9. Generalized the behavior to other settings.
  10. Provide social relations that support change.

Intervention (sequence steps, methods, resources...) (Person(s) responsible) (Next evaluation date)

 

 

6. Evaluation information

Outcomes for success

Evaluation plan

 

Dr. Robert Sweetland's Notes ©