Five Instructional Models Related to Learning Theory and Instructional Purpose

Relationship to Learning Theory

see als Learning theory Model and
Variables that effect learning

Learning Cycle

Karplus and Their Instructional Model

4E Learning Cycle Instructional Model

Common Knowledge Construction Model Instructional Model

5 E Learning Cycle Instructional Model

Learning Cycle Sunal and Sunal Instructional Model

Instructional Purpose

Students use their current intuitive, procedural, or logical knowledge to make meaning.

Students communicate their understandings and questions to themselves and in small groups, devise and conduct tests on their different ideas, and may or may not use the results to resolve any conflict they may or may not have.

If the process stops or there is no change - Assimilation

If a discrepancy is found between what the student anticipated and what was observed - Disequilibration

If after disequilibration, the student reflects, analyzes, and creates a new way of understanding — Accommodation. This may happen for some creatively through exploration and others with guidance in the next step or phase.

1. Exploration

1. Explore

and Engage



* 4 - Evaluate in all phases

Explore, categorize, construct, negotiate,

* Reflect and assess in all phases

1. Engagement

2. Exploration

1. Exploration

Focus students' attention

Diagnostic assessment

Communicate how to collect data to construct understanding

Explore, communicate, construct, negotiate, expand, and apply

Formative assessment

Students communicate their findings and understandings to the entire class.

Introduction of vocabulary for new conceptual understandings.

Description of organization and structure of concepts and their relationship to explanations and other concepts based on observations and reasoning.

Predication and inference

Concepts are taken to their limits through application, analysis, and synthesis. As students devise different ways to test and substantiate their learnings.

This communication may lead to disequilibration, assimilation, accommodation, and further structure changes and finally to a systematic understanding.

2. Invention

2. Explanation


* 4 - Evaluate in all phases

Explore, categorize, construct, negotiate

* Reflect and assess in all phases
3. Explanation 2. Invention

Conceptualize concepts

Invent explanations

Systematize process

Facilitate public discourse

Share ideas

Negotiate and communicate ideas


Formative assessment

Summative assessment

All of the above with greater connection to the organization and structure to extend the concept by generalizing what students have learned by connecting concepts and building relationships that can be applied in additional situations. 3. Discovery

3. Expansion

* 4 - Evaluate in all phases

Explore, categorize, construct, negotiate, translate, and extend

* Reflect and assess in all phases

4. Elaborate and Extend

5. Evaluation

3. Expansion

Expand and apply

Generative assessment


Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes