HoB icon Arrow illusion

Perception, illusions, visualization, memory, learning, and development

Perception, illusions, visualization, memory, learning, and development

We are what we think. All that we are arise with our thoughts,. With our thoughts, we make the world. Buddha



Questioning is the basis of all learning.

Perception is an individual construction of reality, which are not snapshots of reality that can be called up to discover facts that have not been constructed and stored in our memories.

For example: if people are asked to draw a picture of a penny, you can get a variety of results, as below. Memory is a construction created by our personal experiences, biases, emotions, context, and environment.

Perceptions originate from our senses and how they are connected and stuctured in our brain.

For example, words aren't just used to describe our perceptions they are processed differently in different parts of our brain. Samples:

Brain and memory

Which penny is an accurate representation?

Hard to tell?

Memory is an inaccurate representation, not reality. Ifpennies image it isn't universal, can it be reality? See also Arguments, reasoning, logic, and proof.

Memories, such as eye witness accounts, used to be the gold standard of court testimony are becoming more and more questionable.

Eye witness facts


Memories are malleable and can be changed.

priming chart



Illusion is an experience where our perceptions are different than reality.

Examples include:

Red lines illusion

Which of the red lines is longer?


arrows image


Table top illusion

Which table is longer?


tables sketch



Table illusion - See an animation? of one of the table tops being moved on top of the other tale top.


Moving dots illusion

Stare at the dots and see them move ...


dots image


People on a sidewalk illusion

Which person is smaller? Larger? Medium?


men at airport image



Up or Down illusion


Is it up or down?


up or down board


Book illusion


Inside or outside? Are you looking at the inside or outside of the pamphlet?


book cover image



Haze illusion

How Much Haze?


hazi illustration



Average line?


What is the average length of the lines?


Line length image


Scary eyes


Which eyes are scarier?


eyes image


eyse image and chart



Snake recognition

Snake slither - humans respond with a fight, flight, or freeze reaction to a snake in .005 seconds. They recognize it later, after the fact, at .05 maybe.


The brain fills in missing information

What do you recognize in the black and white image below?

image dots


An unconscious mind fills in the gaps.

See how your brain fills in the gaps when reading these two pieces:

  1. phony phonics &
  2. number reading



Black dots illusion


How many black dots?

image of squares



Skull or Lady illusion

Skull or Lady?