First Grade Mathematics Curriculum Outline (changed fall 2006)

 National Council Teachers of Mathematics Standard Nebraksa Standards Competency or Indicator Teacher created concept, objective, outcome, competency Curriculum investigations, units, chapters, modules... Activities Evaluation Levels Numeration 1.1 Numeration/Number Sense 1.1.1 By the end of first grade, students will recognize, write, and orally express the sequential order of the number system. Recognize and write numerals from 0-100. Count to 100 from memory starting with any number. Write the numerals 0 - 9 on a piece of paper with a pencil. . Count forward by 1s, 2s, 5s and 10s up to 100. Count to 100 from memory by 1s, 2s, 5s. and 10s. Give students decks of the different cards and have them deal out 20-40 face down and turn them over in pairs. If the cards match they can remove the pair of cards. Continue until all cards are paired. Randomly select a card from a deck 0-100 (100 chart deck) and read the number. Write the numerals 0 - 100 on a piece of paper with a pencil. Randomly draw a pair of cards from a deck of 10-20 pairs of (0-9 or 0-20)  If the cards match remove the pair of cards from the deck  Continue until all cards are paired Say numbers orally to ten in a language other than English from memory. Count to ten from memory by 1s in another lanaguage. Count backward from 10 to 0 by 1s. Count backward from 18 and all numbers less than 18. Count backward from 10 to 0 by memory by 1s Give a student a random number from 0-10 and ask the student to write the numbers backwards to zero. Repeat the process only ask the student to write the numbers. Randomly select a number and count back to zero. Identify ordinal positions of first, second, third, through tenth. Ordinality (first, - tenth) put trays of objects in order and label each as first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth. Draw one card each from a deck of cards (100 chart deck) and stand in order without talking. 1.1.2 By the end of first grade, students will demonstrate ways of representing numbers and compare relations among numbers. Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems One-to-one-correspondence Matching numbers to objects to accurately count objects to ten. Conservation of numbers. Use a large die. Roll it, place one object on each dot, couint the objects, move them to a plate and count them on the plate. Count objects by saying one number for each object. . Cardinality (1-20) Connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent. Using 16 identical objects place them into two piles, count them, line them up in a one-to-one-correspondence Tell if there are the same amount in both rows  Move one row apart so that it's length is about double and ask which row has more. Count those objects Demonstrate cardinality of numbers (0-20) using concrete objects. Draw a card that has the numeral and dots to match from 0-20  Put a matching amount of objects on a tray and put the trays in order. Roll a number cube and make a group of that many objects. Randomly draw a card from the cards for a 100 or 99 chart and place the cards into a pocket chart. Match dot cards with and with out patterns to numeral cards, numeral word cards, ordinal word cards, sets of manipulatives, and ten frames. One more or less Give students a number or flash a dot plate and ask for one more or one less. Two more or less Give students a number or flash a dot plate and ask for two more or two less. . Recognize the number of dots (3-12) in patterns from memory. Randomly flash a dot plate and tell the number of dots on each plate. . Write numbers 0 - 100 in order increasing or decreasing starting with any number. Select a random number from 0-100 and write the next ten numbers higher  Select a random number from 0-100 and write the next ten numbers lower. . Place value - Identify the amounts of tens and ones in any number from 0-100 (23 there are two tens and three ones  Because 20 + 3 = 23. Select a random number and write its equivalent of tens and ones   Explain how twenty-three and 20 + 3 are or are not equal . Use comparison vocabulary (bigger, smaller, more, less, equal, higher, and lower Identify sets of objects as equal, greater, or less  Recognize the greater than (>) sign and less than (<) sign. List several student's ages  Tell "Who has more years than ÉÉ?" "Who has less than ÉÉÉ?  Compare the ages (Jill is more years than Yep because 7 years is greater than 6) Survey students by asking how many people slept at their house last night  Record the information and write and answer questions who has more? who has less? Turn over two cards from a randomly arranged deck and tell a relationship for the two numbers (seven is greater than two, two is less than seven, or two is equal to two). Identify shapes that are divided equally from shapes that are not divided equally drawn on a sheet of paper. Give students a sheet of paper with the outline of shapes (square, circle, rectangle) and ask them to divide them into two equal parts or halves. Separate unequal and equal pieces of cut sheets of paper (set of 2, 3, & 4 unequal pieces mixed with a set of 2, 3, & 4 equal pieces) into unequal pieces or equal pieces. Identify the fractions of 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4 as equal parts of a whole object or set of objects.. Use pattern blocks, unifix cubes, and/or multilinks of different colors to make sets and tell fractional parts of groups and wholes. Identify ordinal numbers to the 10th place. Ordinal match Use two sets of pictures (10 monkeys and 10 bananas). On one set of pictures write the words first, second, third, etc. and on the second set of pictures write 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. Match pictures. Assessment Master 11 (Building Number Sense) 1. Accurately counts a set of up to 40 objects (Building Number Sense) 2. Reads, writes, and sequences numbers to 100 (Building Number Sense) 3. Associates number words with corresponding written numerals (Building Number Sense) 4. Uses numerals to record how many, for quantities up to 40 (Building Number Sense) 5. Finds combinations of numbers up to 15 (Building Number Sense) 6. Finds the total of two quantities up to 20 (Building Number Sense) 7. Finds the greater of two quantities, up to about 40 (Building Number Sense) 8. Knows combinations of 10 (6 + 4, 8 + 2, etc.) (Building Number Sense) 9. Records problem-solving strategies using pictures, numbers, words, and equations (Building Number Sense) 10. Makes, describes, and extends repeating patterns using a variety of materials (e.g., physical actions, objects, drawings, and numbers) (Building Number Sense) 11. Solves story problems involving addition using:  Direct modeling Counting up/counting down Numerical relationships (Building Number Sense) 12. Solves story problems involving subtraction using: Direct modeling Counting up/counting down Numerical relationships (Building Number Sense) 13. Finds the total of several small single-digit numbers 14. Finds different combinations for one number (e.g., 12 = 7 + 5, 8 + 4, and 3 + 9) 1.1.3 By the end of first grade, students will identify numbers and applications in everyday situations. Identify how numbers are used in counting situations (setting the table and passing out treats). List ways that numbers are used in the world. Identify how numbers are used for identification (room numbers and phone numbers). List ways that numbers are used in the world. Recognize and demonstrate the value of a collection of pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters whose total value is 100 cents or less. List ways that numbers are used in the world. 1.1.4 By the end of first grade, students will demonstrate the value of numbers (0-20) using concrete objects. Must be able to do this to do 1.1.2 - relationships. See references in that section. 1.2.1 By the end of first grade, students will demonstrate the concepts of addition and subtraction up to 10. Demonstrate the value of basic facts using concrete objects. Recognize the symbols + and - as representing the operations of addition and subtraction. Recognize the symbol = represents equal quantities. Solve problems involving one-step solutions related to childrenÕs experiences. Demonstrate strategies for whole number computation. Compute efficiently and accurately basic number facts for addition and subtraction Investigation 4 counting and combining Students keep track of the size of a set. By recounting after addition of elements. Counting on. Grouping and or organizing, mental addition. counting and combining Can make a reasonable guess of a size of an unknown set. counting and combining Understand meanings of operations and how they related to one another Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates Recognize two quantities from 0 - 10 and their sum with the use of patterns (two red dots and three green dots have the same pattern as five black dots). Use an abacus or counting board and do addition problems together Use a hundreds chart add and subtract make a design and tell the partner where he/she is placing each piece as they make the design  The partner attempts to make the same design from the oral directions  When done compare, talk, and report. 1.2.2 By the end of first grade, students will justify estimations to mathematical problems. Make estimations and comparisons to actual results. Assessment Master 28 (Number Games and Story Problems) 1. Reads, writes, and sequences numbers to 100 (Number Games and Story Problems) 2. Finds the total of two or more single-digit numbers (Number Games and Story Problems) 3. Knows combinations of 10 (e.g., 6 + 4, 8 + 2, and 7 + 3) (Number Games and Story Problems) 4. Is increasing his or her familiarity with single-digit addition pairs (Number Games and Story Problems) 5. Finds combinations of numbers up to 20 (Number Games and Story Problems) 6. Understands more, less, and equal amounts (Number Games and Story Problems) 7. Uses equations to describe arrangements of objects or pictures in groups (Number Games and Story Problems) 8. Analyzes visual images of quantities (Number Games and Story Problems) 9. Records solutions with pictures, numbers, words, and equations (Number Games and Story Problems) 10. Finds more than one solution to a problem that has multiple solutions (Number Games and Story Problems) 11. Is developing a strategy for organizing sets of objects so that they are easier to count and combine (Number Games and Story Problems) 12. Is developing meaning for counting by 2Õs (Number Games and Story Problems) 13. Is becoming familiar with coin names, values, and equivalencies (Number Games and Story Problems) 14. Identifies, describes, creates, and extends repeating patterns (Number Games and Story Problems) 15. Represents a pattern in different ways (i.e., with physical actions, concrete materials, drawings, and/or number) (Number Games and Story Problems) 16. Identifies some pattern in the number sequence and on the 100 chart (Number Games and Story Problems) 17. Uses the calculator as a mathematical tool (Number Games and Story Problems) 18. Solves story problems involving addition using: direct modeling counting up/counting down numerical relationships (Number Games and Story Problems) 19. Solves story problems involving subtraction using: direct modeling counting up/counting down numerical relationships (Number Games and Story Problems) 20. Can visualize story problems that involve combining with unknown change (Number Games and Story Problems) 21. Creates story problems to match addition expressions (Number Games and Story Problems) Measurement 1.3 Measurement Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements 1.3.1 By the end of first grade, students will measure two or more items or sets using nonstandard units of measure and compare attributes. . Estimate the number of objects less than 100. Estimate by making a visual comparison to a known quantity. Measure items using nonstandard units (human foot, hand span, new pencil, toothpick, block, and paper clip). Compare attributes of items (length-shorter/longer, height-taller/ shorter, weight-heavier/lighter, and temperature-hotter/colder). . Compare 2 or more objects height, length, and weight through direct measurement of objects with nonstandard connected units (paper clip chains, linked cubesÉ). Estimate lengths of objects using student's foot, and other non standard measures. Conservation of length Compare objects weight. Provide students with jars filled with objects (20-99)  Ask students to estimate the number of objects in the jar  Ask what strategy they used  Count and compare  Discuss what strategies seemed to work better Ask if they want to try again with other jars and objects. . Conservation of volume. Use three containers (Two identical and one that is thinner and taller than the two) and water  Measure equal amounts of water and ask the student if they are equal  If the student responds no ask s/he to make them so that they are. When the student agrees that the volumes are the same have s/he pour one into one of the two containers (short or tall) and the other in the second container (short or tall). Ask which container now has more water. . Recognize one cup as a unit of measure and use it to measure 1 cup of liquid and dry measure. Identify a one-cup container among several different sized containers (1 cup, 1/3 cup, 2-cup, liter, 2 liter, 1/2 cup)  Use a measuring cup as a point of reference   Use a cup measure to fill different sized containers with liquid and dry materials (water, sand, rice, beans). . Weight Compare the weight of different objects by identifying the heavier and lighter of different pairs of objects that are easily differentiate by holding. Use two rocks and a balance scale. Determine which rock is the heaviest and lightest. Give each pair of students will take a rock, balance it with other objects (multilink-cubes, marbles, beans) and record the weight on a card. Each pair will place the card above their rocks on the chalk tray. Ask if the rocks are in position according to weight. If not ask if they could be put into order by weight and how to do it. Do it. Ask how size corresponds to weigh. Assessment Master 33 (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) Understands what weight is 1. Demonstrates a sense of heavy and light by feel (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 2. Uses language to describe and compare weights (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 3. Uses a balance to weigh objects (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 4. Compar(es the weights of different objects using a balance Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 5. Represents the results of weight comparisons Understands what capacity is (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 6. Uses language to describe and compare capacities (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 7. Compares capacities (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 8. Compares and measures capacities using nonstandard units (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 9. Collects, keeps track of, and interprets data (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 10. Estimates the number of units needed to fill a container (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 11. Counts and keeps track of quantities up to 50 (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 12. Relates size and shape to capacity (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 13. Compares the capacities of two containers by filling them with continuous substances (such as water) or discrete objects (such as cubes) (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 14. Compares the capacities of more than two containers (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 15. Fills a given area with shapes (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) Understands what length is 16. Uses language to describe and compare lengths (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 17. Uses direct comparison of lengths (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 18. Measures and compares lengths using nonstandard units (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 19. Orders lengths (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 20. Represents measurements with numbers, concrete materials, and/or pictures in a clear, ordered way (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 21. Develops, describes, and justifies techniques for filling containers, comparing capacities, and measuring lengths (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 22. Describes measurements that canÕt be measured in whole, exact units (Bigger, Taller, Heavier, Smaller) 1.3.2 By the end of first grade, students will identify tools of measurement and their appropriate use (clocks, calendar, ruler, balance scale, and thermometer). Identify purpose of clocks. List ways that people use clocks. . Identify the days of the week  Identify the months of the year. Explore calendars to see how days, weeks and months in a year are organized. Write and say the days of the week and the months of the year. Use a calendar each day, during morning meeting to tell the month, day, and date. Fill in a blank calendar for a year and label holidays, birthdays, and special days. Dance the months of the year to the "Macarana"  Sing the days of the week and the second time through, stop on today. . Identify the purpose of thermometers  Distinguish between hot, medium, and cold temperatures read the daily temperature from a thermometer. Ask students why and where they use thermometers  (outside, interior, body, food)  Or have each student draw 2 pictures of how and where they use thermometers. Identify temperatures below 40 degrees (F)ahrenheit as cold temperatures in 70 F as nice or room temperature, and 90's + F as hot. Identify times of day and length of different time periods. Ask random questions about times of the day; ex ; what we do at 7:00 in the morning, 12:00 in the day, and 8:00 at night Ask what times are morning and night. Randomly ask what is something that takes about a minute, hour, half-hour, day, week, month, year. 1.3.3 By the end of first grade, students will tell time to the half-hour using an analog and digital clock. Identify numbers on a clock. Randomly point to a number on a clock and identify the number. . Put numbers in order on a clock. Make a large circle on the floor  Put a number where it would go if the circle was a clock. 1.3.4 By the end of first grade, students will identify the different units of measurement used in their environment (cents, dollars, pounds, gallons, liters, meters, miles, minutes, and hours). . Identify penny, nickel, dime, and quarter. Students select a coin from a purse and identify it by name. . Count money to \$1 00. Money bingo Use 1¢ , 5¢ , 10¢ , 25¢ , and 100¢; pictures of the same value coin or paper money;  01,  05,  10,  25, 100 and \$1 Play store  Tag items in the classroom with a price equal to or less than \$1.00  Give each student a combination of coins  Direct the student to "buy" items with their coins. 1.3.5 By the end of first grade, students will identify past, present, and future as orientations in time. Demonstrate an understanding of time earlier and later; past, present, and future. Randomly select two times and ask which comes earlier, or which comes later, assuming they are on the same day (7:00 in the morning or 7:00 at night, 8:00 in morning or 11:00 in the morning, 11:00 in the morning or 3:00 in the afternoon). Sequence pictures of daily, weekly, and yearly activities Geometry 1.4 Geometry/Spatial Concepts 1.4.1 By the end of first grade, students will compare relative position (left/right, above/below, over/under, up/down, and near/far). 1.4.2 By the end of first grade, students will identify, describe, and create circles, squares, triangles, and rectangles. Construct congruent shapes and designs using manipulatives. Identify and describe common geometric shapes in their environment Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems Recognize spatial concepts of left/right, above/below, over/under, near/far. Place an object of their choice to match the verbal direction of left, right, above, below, over, under, near and far relative to their body. Assessment Master 23 (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 1. Observes, describes, and compares shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 2. Uses mathematical vocabulary to describe and name shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 3. Describes characteristics of triangles (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 4. Groups shapes according to common characteristics (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 5. Composes and decomposes shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 6. Notices relationships among shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 7. Uses rotation and reflection to arrange shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 8. Rills a given region with shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 9. Visualizes and represents shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 10. Is familiar with a variety of squares, rectangles, and triangles (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 2-Dimensional Shapes) 3-Dimensional Shapes 11. Constructs, observes, describes, and compares shapes and objects (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 12. Uses mathematical vocabulary to describe shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 13. Constructs 3-D shapes form 2-D shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 14. Visualizes and describes objects by size, shape, and orientation (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 15. Compares and describes objects by size, shape, and orientation (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 16. Puts 3-D shapes together to make other shapes (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 17. Creates and uses 2-D representations of 3-D shapes and objects (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) Paths and Patterns 18. Notices shapes in the environment (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 19. Visualizes, describes, and compares the path between two locations in space and on a grid (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 20. Estimates distances (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 21. Visualizes and describes directions of turns (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 22. Follows, gives, and records directions for how to move in space and on a path (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 23. Builds a pattern by repeating a unit square (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) 24. Sees how changing the unit affects the whole pattern (Quilt Squares and Block Towns 3-Dimensional Shapes) . Identify circles, squares triangles, and rectangles. Identify one of the shapes (circle, square, triangle, and rectangle) from a collection of assorted shapes. . Construct congruent shapes and designs using manipulatives. Copy a shape (circle, square, triangle, or rectangle) drawn by another person. Form a collection of shapes locate each shape in turn (circle, square, triangle, or rectangle) and tell how many sides each has, and which sides are the same size. . Identify 2 and 3-D figures in the environment. Draw a square, circle, triangle, and rectangle shape on a card. Have pairs of students sort the cards by their shapes. Join two pairs and have them match their shapes.  Combine all to make a class display of the shapes. Match the cards to objects or pictures. Chart or make a timeline of how they made their display  What did they do 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. Data Analysis and Probability 1.5 Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistical Concepts 1.5.1 By the end of first grade, students will collect information about objects and events in their environment (favorite candy bar, number of siblings, and number of pets). 1.5.2 By the end of first grade, students will organize and display collected information using objects and pictures. Each person puts a multilink cube in each pocket that they have in the clothes that they are wearing indoors today. Have each person write their name on a card and put their cubes beside their card on the chalkboard tray. Ask what can be said about the data (everyone has pockets, 5 have two pockets, more people have five pockets, the most pockets anyone has is 7). Next give each student a sticky note and have him or her write the number of pockets they have on the sticky. Ask how to organize the sticky notes (put all the sticky notes with zero edge to edge on top of each other on a board, then put all the ones, twosÉ until all are on the board). When all the sticky notes are on the board ask each student to say and/or write something they can know about pockets in the classroom today 1.5.3 By the end of first grade, students will compare and interpret information from displayed data (more, less, and fewer). 1.5.4 By the end of first grade, students will describe the process used in data collection and analysis. Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data Understand and apply basic concepts of probability Algebra 1.6 Algebraic Concepts Understand patterns, relations, and functions Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships Analyze change in various contexts 1.6.1 By the end of first grade, students will identify, describe, extend, and create patterns (objects, sounds, movements, shapes, numbers, and colors). Recognize odd and even numbers. Each student selects a number from 10-50 and gets that number of link cubes or blocks to represent the numbers. Each person should snap their blocks together to make one long train. Put all the trains into a row so that they are all side-by-side. Sort them into pairs of equal lengthsŠeven or unequal lengths - odd. Odd or even trains or buildings School number of days line Tape adding machine paper or similar somewhere in the room so students can write a number on the tape to represent days in school. Could alternate colors to represents odd and even numbers. 100/99 chart create even and odd patterns by putting colored transparent plastic pieces into the pockets. Use a 100 chart and color the even and odd different colors. Repeat with a 99 chart and discuss the differences in patterns. 1.6.2 By the end of first grade, students will sort and classify objects according to one or more attributes (size, shape, color, and thickness). 1.6.3 By the end of first grade, students will identify and describe patterns in their environment. Recognizing number patterns Recognize patterns of 5Õs and 10Õs Create patterns with shapes, colors, movement, sounds, and objects. Investigation 3 (patterns) Can describe a pattern, know where a pattern starts, stops, and repeats. Can predict next elements of a pattern with three elements (abc,abc or abb,abb). (patterns) Construct their own pattenr. Simple pattern with one element change (alternate). Patter with two elements. Begin a pattern but lose track of what is next. Describe and record a pattern  (patterns) Walk around the school and find patterns in the school (tiles on floor, carpet patterns, designs on the wall, clothes, etc ) List on chart paper all the patterns they found in the school. Show different patterns with manipulatives, sounds, physical movement and have students identify the pattern. (abab; abbabb; abcabc; abaaba;É) Trace hands on paper and write by 5Õs as a class. Alternate colors of hands to count by 10Õs  Example: 2 blue, 2 red, 2 green. Clap a pattern Design a pattern using wallpaper squares or tiles. Use objects and line them up by 2, 3, 4, and 5. Draw a picture of different arrangements. Describe how many are in each row and how the numbers are increasing as each row is added. Make square patterns and count the number of squares. Make rectangle patterns and count the number of squares. Make triangular patterns and count the number of triangles. Identify and describe patterns with numbers Write numbers by 2's, 3's, 5Õs and 10Õs to 100. Put students in a circle and have them count by ___Õs to see how many times they can go around without miss counting Color code numbers on an adding machine paper for each day of school according to different patterns of skip counting 0, 2, 4,Éred, 0, 3, ,6 Égreen É Color different patterns of numbers on 100 charts Color different patterns of numbers on 99 charts Count by 5Õs and 10Õs in a rhythm emphasizing the second or alternate number, ex : 5, 10, 15, 20, etc  or 10, 20, 30, 40 etc Recognize the ten more or less pattern Add and subtract sums (function) of 10 Use 100 chart and have students solve arrow problems using up and down arrows. . Sort and classify objects according to one attributes and lay them end to end to make a real-life bar graph  Recognize that a graph is a good way to see relationships easily. Give each student a bag of different color or shaped objects Have the students sort the objects by the chosen property Ask them lay them out on a desk to make a graph or so that people could easily see how many of each. . Recognize action words in story problems that describe mathematical operations. Use a problem solving heuristic (4 step) and select a strategy for story problems. Act out problems Identify the words in a problem that described the mathematical operation.

Dr. Robert Sweetland's Notes ©