Nervous system review key:

What is the nervous system?

It includes the brain, spinal cord, and all nerves through out the body. It coordinates all of the bodies activities.

Describe the function of the central nervous system (CNS).

  • The brain receives internal and external messages from nerves that sense changes of touch, electrical signals, hormones, and chemicals. The messages travel through the nervous system where they are processed, mostly in the brain, which sends information to muscles and glands that cause physical actions. Some information may be processed and stored as memory.

Describe the function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes all the nerves and sensory receptors that extend from the brain and the spinal cord. The PNS sends information to the CNS to be interpreted and decides if a response is to be sent back to the PNS.

Parts and functions

Match the words in the word bank to the function and label the diagram.

  1. ___ autonomic nervous system _______
    regulates and controls internal organ (heart, lungs, stomach intestine) functions, and glands.
  2. ___ interneurons _______
    located in the CNS and connect neurons in the brain and spinal cord to transmit messages among the CNS.
  3. ___ spinal cord ________
    part of the the central nervous system that is as thick as an index finger and transmits electrical signals.
  4. ___ somatic nervous system ______
    sends signals from sensory organs, sensory maps of the body, voluntary muscle signals, emotions, memory and consciousness functions to the CNS
  5. ___ sensory neurons ________
    transmit messages from the receptors in the body (skin, muscles) to the CNS (brain and spinal cord).
  6. ___ cerebellum ________
    receives information from the somatic nervous system, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain to regulate voluntary movement such as posture, balance, coordination, speech, to achieve a smooth and balanced activity. .
  7. ___ autonomic neurons _______
    transmit signals that have an involuntary or semi-voluntary functions that control the heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, temperature regulation, sweating ....
  8. ___ motor neurons ______
    transmit responses from the brain and spinal cord (CNS) as messages to the muscles and glands.
  9. ___ axons ________
    grow from the cell body and toward neurons, muscle cells, or glands and transmit impulses to them.
  10. ___ brain ________
    part of the CNS that receives, processes, and sends signals.
  11. ___ depressant _____
    alcohol has this effect on the nervous system. .
  12. ___ parasympathetic nervous system _______
    regulates the body during rest controls heart rate, relaxes blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, repairs the body, promote digestion and absorption, relaxation, slows respiration, bladder, and sexual arousal.
  13. ___ cerebrum ________
    is the newest evolved and is the center of conscious thought, learning, and memory. .
  14. ___ dendrites _______
    grows from the cell body and receives signals and transmits them to the cell body.
  15. ___ occipital lobe _____
    is the sight and visual processing center and place for dreams. .
  16. ___ sympathetic nervous system _______
    mobilizes the fight or flight response.
  17. ___ cell body _________
    part of a neuron with a nucleus, connects to dendrites and axons, and regulates the production of protein.
  18. ___ frontal lobe ________
    controls voluntary movement, language, concentration, cognition, memory, analysis, consequences, critical thinking, problem solving, logic, planning, and emotions. .
  19. ___ parietal lobe ___
    integrates information from the senses (hot, cold, pain, touch, and body position in space) for spatial, visual, speech, pain, and touch responses..
  20. ___ temporal lobe __
    is the hearing and auditory processing, smell, memory, thought, and judgment. It is the location of the hippocampus which is associated with memory and memory of faces and locations.
  21. ___ brain stem ____
    the oldest part of the brain. Is a three inches long bundle of nerve cells that connect the brain and the spinal cord. All incoming sensory impulses and motor impulses pass through it.

Label parts on the diagram

Brain figure

Word bank

motor neurons, somatic nervous system, dendrites, autonomic neurons, blood vessels, sympathetic nervous system, neuron, cell body, parasympathetic nervous system, frontal lobe, sensory neurons, brain, receptor, temporal lobe, synapse, autonomic nervous system, interneurons, depressant, occipital lobe, axons, spinal cord, cerebellum, cerebrum, parietal lobe,


Ways to care for the nervous system.

  • Good nutrition
  • Exercise
  • sleep
  • Protective equipment (helmets...) and devices (seat belts...)
  • Avoid use of drugs and alcohol.


Describe two health related care issues.

  • Cerebral palsy is a group of neurological disorders caused by damage of the brain before, during, or shortly after birth. Physical therapy and medication can help for a better life.
  • Degenerative diseases (multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, & Alzheimer's)
  • Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures caused by uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. Caused by congenital brain damage, infection, head injury, or toxins.
  • Headaches are caused by muscle tension, eyestrain, fumes, sinus infection, dehydration, poor posture, anxiety, noise, alcohol abuse, and food allergies. Migraines are headaches that recur. Some causes are foods (aged cheeses, salty foods, food additives, processed foods & drinks may trigger migraines), stress, sensory stimuli to light, changes in wake-sleep pattern, physical factors, hormonal changes in women. (change in estrogen amount seem to trigger headaches in women with known migraines).
  • Head injury concussion which is a temporary loss of consciousness, bruising which causes blood to pool and swelling, swelling, coma, major trauma.
  • Meningitis is an inflammation of the spinal or cranial meninges caused by bacteria or virus infection. Is very serious and can cause death.
  • Spinal injuries can be swelling and temporary loss of nerve function. Spinal cord severed results in paralysis.

Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes
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