Muscular system review key:

What is the muscular system?

Includes all the muscles that enable the body to move, voluntarily (aware: walk, move ... ) and involuntarily (unaware: heart beat, digest food, breathe ... ), offers protection, and gives the body form and shape.

Name three types of muscles.

  • Smooth
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac

Parts and functions

Match the words in the word bank to the function and label the diagram.

  1. _ cardiac __________ type of muscle makes the walls of the heart.
  2. _ expand & contract ___ muscles do this to move.
  3. _ muscular dystrophy _ when muscle tissue is progressively destroyed.
  4. _ smooth __________ type of muscles in the digestive tract, urinary tract, bladder, blood vessels, and lungs.
  5. _ tendinitis _________ inflammation of a tendon caused by overuse, injury, or aging.
  6. _ skeletal __________ type of muscle attaches to ligaments and tendons.
  7. _ smooth __________ type of muscle that is involuntary and lines the internal organs.
  8. _ bruises __________ discolored skin caused by leaks and breaks in blood vessels.
  9. _ strain ___________ a stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon.
  10. _ hernia __________ when an organ or tissue protrudes through the muscle area.
  11. _ sprain __________ a stretching or tearing of ligaments


Label parts on the diagram

Muscles diagram

Muscles back

Images adapted from: Häggström, Mikael. "Medical gallery of Mikael Häggström 2014". Wikiversity Journal of Medicine 1 (2). via Wikimedia Commons

Word bank

hernia, tendinitis, sprain, smooth, skeletal, skin, hair, expand, contract, nails, epidermis, blood vessels, muscular dystrophy, cardiac, bruises, deltoid, rotor cuff, deltoid, quadriceps femoris, peroneus longus, abdominal external oblique, trapezius, rhomboids, biceps grachii, triceps brachii, soleus, latissimus dorsi

Describe ways to care for muscles.

  • Regular physical exercise with weight movement to keep muscles strong and toned.
  • Balanced diet with sufficient protein to build muscle.
  • Good posture to strength muscles and enhance body structure
  • Use equipment appropriately and safely
  • Use protective gear and equipment
  • Warm up and cool down properly to prevent strain ...


Describe two health related care issues

  • muscle strain  can be caused when muscles stretch or are partially torn with stress. Apply ice to reduce swelling and rest to repair the muscles.
  • tendinitis or inflammation of a tendon can be caused by overuse, injury, or aging. Anti-inflammation medicine and ultrasound can reduce pain and swelling.
  • hernia is when an organ or tissue protrudes through the muscle area. Caused by strain (maybe lifting heavy objects). Surgery may be required to repair the area.
  • muscular dystrophy is when muscle tissue is progressively destroyed. No cure, but can be delayed with physical therapy.


Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes
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