Theorists: Main Ideas and Principal Teachings:
Discipline & management
- Instructional management should focus on democratic teaching.
- Control misbehavior by keeping students actively engaged in classroom activities.
- Rely on teaching techniques rather than verbal desists to control student behavior.
- Use withitness, alerting, accountability, challenge, enthusiasm, and variety to delay satiation.
Kounin's Principal Teachings
- Teachers need to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times.
- Good lesson momentum helps keep students on track.
- Smoothness in lesson presentation helps keep students involved.
- Effective teachers have systems for gaining student attention and clarifying expectations.
- Effective teachers keep students attentive and actively involved.
- Teachers good in behavior management are able to attend to two or more events simultaneously (overlapping).
- Teachers must see to it that students are not given over-exposure to a particular topic (satiation
- Teachers should make instructional activities enjoyable and challenging.
- Instructional management should focus on democratic teaching.
- Do the best possible to give every student a sense of belonging in the classroom.
- When misbehavior occurs, identify the mistaken goal of that behavior.
- Confront mistaken-goal behavior and help students redirect it in positive ways.
- Discipline is based on mutual respect, which motivates students to behave constructively out of a heightened sense of social interest.
- An autocratic teacher is one who lays down the law in the classroom, feels a strong need to be always in charge, and doles out harsh consequences when rules are broken.
- A permissive teacher is one who fails to insist that students comply with reasonable expectations and consequences.
- A democratic teacher is one who tries to motivate students from within, helps students develop rules of conduct that will enable the class to prosper, and allows students to exercise freedom coupled with responsibility.
- A democratic classroom is a classroom in which teacher and students cooperate in making joint decisions about class procedures, rules, and consequences for misbehavior.
- Virtually all students have a compelling desire to feel a sense of belonging in the classroom.
- When students are unable to attain the genuine goal of belonging, they turn to mistaken goals.
- The Mistaken Goals are:
- Trying to Get Attention,
- Seeking Power,
- Seeking Revenge, and
- Displaying Inadequacy.
- Encouragement is words or actions teachers use to convey respect for students and belief in their abilities.
- When teachers see a student pursuing a mistaken goal, they should point out that fact to the stude
- Logical consequences are reasonable results that follow a behavior, desirable or undesirable
- Punishment is action taken by the teacher to get back at students and show them who is boss, usually by humiliating or isolating the offending students.
- Instructional management should focus on shaping behavior through communication and reinforcement.
- When dealing with problem behavior, address the situation, not the character of the student.
- Invite cooperation by focusing on what needs to be done, rather than on what was done wrong.
- Speak to misbehaving students as you would like to be spoken to yourself, in the situation.
- Maintain this attitude: What can I do that will best help my students right now?
- Learning always takes place in the present tense.
- Learning is always a personal matter to the student.
- Teachers should always endeavor to use congruent communication (harmonious to the students' feelings about situations and themselves).
- The cardinal principle of congruent communication is that it addresses situations.
- Teachers at their best, using congruent communication, do not preach or moralize, nor impose guilt or demand promises.
- Teachers at their worst label students, belittle them, and denigrate their character.
- Sane messages are communications from adults that encourage the young to trust their own perceptions and feelings.
- Effective teachers invite cooperation of their students by describing the situation and indicating what needs to be done.
- The Ten Commandments is a term Ginott uses to refer to the unnecessarily detailed work directions that many teachers give their students.
- Acceptance and acknowledgement are behaviors that Ginott would like to see in all teachers.
- Teachers have a hidden asset upon which they should always call, namely: "How can I be helpful to my students right now?"
- Teachers should feel free to express their anger, but in doing so should use I-messages rather than You-messages.
- It is wise to use short, concise, brief language when responding to or redirecting student misbehavior.
- Yet at times, it is useful to use long or difficult words that students are not accustomed to hearing such as "I am aghast!" or "I am appalled!", or "I am dismayed!"
- Evaluative praise is worse than none at all and never be used. (Ex: Good boy for raising your hand!).
- Teachers should use appreciative praise when responding to effort or improvement. (Ex. I can see how much you love animals by the way you draw them).
- Labeling is disabling, Ginott contends, a saying he used to emphasize the harm done to students by labeling them derogatorily.
- Always respect students' privacy.
- Correcting by directing describes how misbehaving students should be dealt with (don't reprimand -redirect).
- Teachers' why questions do not prompt inquiry but are used to make students feel guilty.
- Sarcasm is almost always dangerous and should not be used when talking with students.
- Classroom discipline is attained gradually, as a series of little victories.
- Punishment should not be used with students.
- Teachers should strive continually for self-discipline in their work with students.
B. F. Skinner
- Strengthen desired behavior by providing reinforcement immediately when it is noted.
- Extinguish undesired behavior by seeing that it is followed by no reinforcement at all.
- Shape complex behavior gradually, through successive approximations.
- Argued everything that could determine behaviour must be considered. However, noted the difficulty of dealing with internal effects on behavior.
- His analysis includes: three events. Event to consider prior to a behavior, the behavior, and the event following the behavior. Later known as ABC (anticendent, behavior, consequence)
- Behavior is often shaped by reinforcing stimuli received immediately after an organism performs an act.
- Operant behavior, which can be influenced by reinforcement, is a voluntary action performed by an organism.
- A reinforcing stimulus is anything that happens to the organism after if performs an operant that increases the likelihood that it will repeat the operant.
- Most stimuli, if they are to have a reinforcing effect, must be received with two or three seconds after the operant is performed.
- Reinforcement refers to the process of supplying reinforcing stimuli to individuals after they have performed a particular behavior.
- Positive reinforcement is the technical name for the process of supplying a stimulus that reinforces behavior.
- Negative reinforcement is the technical name for the process of removing something following an operant; the absence of whatever was removed then reinforces the behavior- makes it more likely to recur. (Taking something away that the student doesn't like).
- Schedules of reinforcement describe when and how often reinforcement is provided when someone attempts to shape an individual's behavior.
- Constant reinforcement, provided every time a desired act is seen, is most effective in establishing new learning’s.
- Once new learning is acquired, it can be maintained indefinitely by using intermittent reinforcement, in which reinforcing stimuli are supplied only occasionally.
- Successive approximation refers to a behavior-shaping progression in which actions (operant) come closer and closer to a preset goal.
- Extinction is the disappearance of a particular behavior.
- Behavior modification refers to the overall procedure of shaping behavior intentionally through reinforcement.
Lee and Marlene Canter
- Focused on procedures for classroom discipline.
- Always remain in charge in the classroom, but not in a hostile or authoritarian manner.
- Take specific steps to teach students how to behave acceptably in the classroom.
- Identify students' personal needs and show your understanding and willingness to help.
- Continually strive to build trust between yourself and your students.
- Today's students have clear rights and needs that must be met if they are to be taught effectively.
- Teachers have rights and needs in the classroom as well.
- The most effective teachers are those who remain in control of the class while always remembering that their principal duty is to help students learn and behave responsibly.
- Teachers must continually model through their own behavior in kind of trust and respect for students that they want students to show toward them.
- A good discipline plan, built on trust and respect, is necessary for helping students limit their own counterproductive behavior.
- Most teachers need practice in making positive repetitions.
- Negative consequences are penalties teachers invoke when students violate class expectations.
- Positive consequences are rewards, usually words or facial expressions, that teachers offer when students comply with class expectations.
- Today's teachers must both model and directly teach proper behavior.
- Teachers can have success with a majority of students deemed difficult-to-manage.
- Focused on procedures for classroom discipline.
- Make it a priority to eliminate the vast time wasti evident in most classrooms.
- Use good classroom organization and efficient help to forestall most behavior problems.
- Use effective body language and incentive systems to deal with incipient behavior.
- Teach students responsibility; don't do for them what they are capable of doing for themselves.
- Approximately 99% of all student misbehavior consists of talking without permission and generally goofing off, such as daydreaming, making noise and being out of one's seat.
- On the average, teachers in typical classrooms lose approximately 50% of their teaching time because students are off-task or otherwise disrupting learning.
- Most teaching time that is otherwise lost can be recouped when teachers provide efficient help to students, use effective body language, and use incentive systems.
- Discipline is the process of enforcing standards and building cooperation so that disruptions are minimized and learning is maximized.
- Efficient arrangement of the classroom improves the likelihood of successful teaching and learning.
- Proper use of body language is one of the most effective discipline skills available to teachers.
- Physical proximity of the teacher helps students maintain self-control.
- Body carriage is very effective in communicating teacher authority.
- Teachers set limits on student behavior not so much through rules as through subtle interpersonal skills.
- Students will work hard and behave well when given incentives to do so. (favorite activities, etc.)
- Incentives are cost-effective when they motivate all students to remain on task and behave properly.
- To be effective, an incentive must be attractive to the entire group and be available equally to all.
- Students must learn to do their work without the teacher hovering over them.
- The goal of discipline is for students to assume responsibility for their actions.
- Focused on procedures for classroom discipline.
- Strive to help every student feel they belong in the class, that they have a place and are valued.
- Find ways to help every student connect with others, contribute to the class, and feel capable.
- Involve students in planning the class code of conduct and the consequences for misbehavior.
- Turn every classroom misbehavior into an opportunity to help students learn better behavior.
- Students choose their behavior. How they behave is not outside their control.
- Students need to feel that they belong in the classroom, which means they must perceive themselves to be important, worthwhile, and valued.
- When students misbehave, their goal is usually gain attention, gain power, exact revenge, or avoid failure.
- Teacher can only influence student behavior; they cannot directly control it.
- Teachers in general reflect three styles of classroom management: permissive, autocratic, and democratic. Of the three, the democratic style best promotes good discipline.
- The Three C's- Capable, Connect, and Contribute- are essential in helping students feel a sense of belonging.
- Teachers should work cooperatively with students to develop a classroom code of conduct.
- Teachers should also work cooperatively with student to develop s set of consequences to be invoked when the classroom code of conduct is transgressed.
- One of a teacher's greatest assets is good self-control.
- When conflicts occur between teacher and students, the teacher should remain cool and relaxed.
- Encouragement is the most powerful teaching tool available to teachers.
- Teachers should remember that in order to develop a good system of discipline, they require the cooperation of students and parents.
- Focused on procedures for classroom discipline.
- Involve students in problem solving and decision making about class rules and procedures.
- Use the behavior window to identify interpersonal problems and determine their ownership.
- Use helping skills when students own the problem, confrontative skills when teachers own it.
- Learn to see misbehavior simply as student action that the teacher considers undesirable.
- Authority is a condition that enables one to exert influence or control over others. There are at least four types of authority: Expert Authority is recognized expertise in a given matter; Positional
- Authority is based on job description; Contractual Authority comes from contracts and agreements;
- Power Authority is the power to control others.
- Noncontrolling methods of behavior change are available for teacher to use in influencing students to behave properly.
- A problem is a condition, event or situation that troubles someone.
- When an individual is troubled by a condition, event or situation, that individual is said to "own" the problem.
- Primary feelings are fundamental feelings that one experiences after observing another person's unacceptable behavior.
- Secondary feelings are manufactured feelings that one senses following the resolution of a difficulty.
- I-messages are statements in which people tell what they personally think or feel about another's behavior and its consequences.
- You messages are statements of blame leveled at someone's behavior.
- Confrontative I messages are messages that attempt to influence another cease an unacceptable behavior.
- Shifing gears is a tactic that involves changing from a confrontative to a listening posture.
- Students' coping mechanisms are strategies that student's use to deal with coercive power. Those mechanisms are: Fighting, Taking Flight, Submitting.
- Win-Lose conflict resolution is a way of ending disputes (temporarily) by producing a winner and a loser.
- No-lose conflict resolution is a way of ending disputes by enabling both sides to emerge as winners (Win-Win).
- Door openers are words and actions that invite others to speak about whatever is on their minds.
- Active Listening involves carefully attending to and demonstrating understanding of what another person says.
- Communication Roadblocks are comments by well-meaning teachers that shut down student willingness to communicate.
- Preventive I-messages attempt to forestall future actions that may later constitute a problem.
- Preventive You-messages (to be avoided) are used to scold students for past behavior.
- Participative classroom management permits students to share in problem solving and decision making concerning the classroom and class rules.
Jane Nelson, Lynn Lott, H. Stephen Glenn
- Focused on procedures for classroom discipline.
- Problem solving is a process that should be taught and practiced in all classrooms.
- Students must learn to see themselves as capable, significant, and able to control their lives.
- Students need to develop important intrapersonal, interpersonal, strategic and judgmental skills.
- These outcomes are best fostered by caring teachers who emphasize them in class meetings.
- Teachers must replace barriers to communication with builders of communication.
- Discipline problems gradually become insignificant in classroom where there is a climate of acceptance, dignity, respect, trust and encouragement.
- Students need to perceive themselves are capable, significant, and in control of their own lives.
- Students need to develop skills of self-control, adaptability, cooperation, and judgment.
- Teachers must show that they truly cam about their students.
- Teachers demonstrate caring by showing personal interest, talking with students, offering encouragement, and providing opportunities to learn important life skills.
- Teachers can greatly facilitate desirable student behavior by removing barriers to good relationships with students and by replacing them with builders of good relationships.
- Class meetings should emphasize participation by everyone, group resolution of problems, and Win-Win solutions.
- To the extent possible, help meet students' needs for belonging, freedom, power and fun.
- Establish quality as the prime ingredient in all aspects of teaching, learning and curriculum.
- Seek to work with students in a role of lead teacher, rather than boss teacher.
- Learn nonpunitive, noncoercive techniques for motivating students to work and participate.
Glasser's Principle Teachings Prior to 1985
- Students are rational beings who can control their behavior. They choose to act the way they do.
- Good choices equal good behavior, while bad choices equal bad behavior.
- Teachers must always try to help students make good choices throughout each day.
- Teacher who truly care about their students accept no excuses for bad behavior.
- Teachers must see to it that reasonable consequences always follow behavior, good or bad.
- It is essential that every class have a workable list of rules to govern behavior and that those rules be consistently enforced.
- Classroom meetings are effective vehicles for addressing matters of class rules, behavior, and consequences.
Glasser's Principle Teachings Since 1985
- All of our behavior is our best attempt to control ourselves to meet five basic needs:
- Students feel pleasure when their basic needs are met and frustration when they are not.
- At least half of today's students will not commit themselves to learning if they find their school experience boring, frustrating, or otherwise dissatisfying.
- Few students in today's schools do their best work.
- Today's schools must create quality conditions in which fewer students and teachers are frustrated.
- What schools require is a new commitment to quality education.
- The school curriculum should be limited to learnings that have usefulness or other relevance in the students' lives.
- Students should be allowed to acquire in-depth information about topics they recognize as being useful or relevant to their lives.
- Students show that quality learning has occurred when able to demonstrate or explain how, why, and where their learnings are valuable.
- Teachers, instead of scolding, coercing, or punishing, should try to befriend their students, provide encouragement and stimulation, and show an unending willingness to help.
- Teachers who dictate procedures, order students to work, and berate them when they do not, are increasingly ineffective with today's students.
- Teachers who provide a stimulating learning environment, encourage students, and help them as much as possible are most effective with today's learners.
Richard Curwin and Allen Mendler
- Discipline with dignity.
- Accept that helping students learn to behave acceptably is an integral part of teaching.
- Always, in all circumstances, interact with students in a manner that preserves their dignity.
- Do all you can to reinstill hope of success in students who chronically misbehave.
- Make sure that discipline techniques you use never interfere with motivation to learn.
- The number of students whose chronic classroom misbehavior puts them in imminent danger of failing in school is on the increase.
- Most of these chronically misbehaving students have lost all hope of encountering anything worthwhile in school.
- Students do all they can to prevent damage to their dignity, to their sense of self-value.
- Schools exist for students, not for teachers.
- Five underlying principles of effective discipline should always be kept in mind. Those principles are: (1) discipline is a very important part of teaching, (2) short-term solutions are rarely effective, (3) students must always be treated with dignity, (4) discipline must not interfere with motivation, (5) responsibility is more important than obedience.
- Short-term solutions to discipline problems such as writing offending students' names on the board, often turn into long-term disasters.
- Responsibility, not obedience, is the goal of discipline.
- A thorough approach to classroom discipline has three dimensions. Those dimensions are: (1) prevention (steps taken to forestall misbehavior), (2) action (steps taken when class rules are broken), (3) resolution (special arrangements for improving the misbehavior of out-of-control students).
- Consequences, which are preplanned actions invoked when class rules are broken, are necessary in discipline.
- The Insubordination Rule is a bottom-line rule to be included in the discipline plan, or social contract.
- Creative responses are unexpected responses to misbehavior that teachers can occasionally use effectively.
- Wise teachers de-escalate potential confrontations by actively listening to the student, using I-messages, and keeping the discussion private.
- The behavior of difficult-to-manage students can be improved through providing interesting lessons on topics of personal relevance that permit active involvement and lead to competencies students value.
- Believe that students are worth every effort and should treat them as adults want to be treated.
- Give students opportunity to solve their problems. "You have a problem: What is your plan?" Conversations to change behavior.
- Use natural or reasonable consequences to problems, rather than bribes, rewards or threats.
- Apply the RSVP checklist to test the value and practicality of consequences.
- Students are worth all the effort teachers can expend on them.
- School should be neither adult-dominated nor student-controlled.
- Teachers should never treat students in ways they, they teachers, wouldn't want to be treated.
- If a discipline tactic works, and leave student and teacher's dignity intact, use it.
- Proper discipline does four things that punishment cannot do: (1) shows students what they have done wrong, (2) give them ownership of the problems created, (3) gives them ways to solve the problems, (4) leaves their dignity intact.
- In order to develop inner discipline, children must learn how to think, not just what to think.
- Students have the right to be in school, but they have the responsibility to respect the rights of those around them.
- Teachers fall into three categories: Brickwall Teachers: rigid, use power, and coercion to control others, teach what to think, not how to think; Jellyfish Teachers: provide little structure, consistency or guidance, and rely on putdowns, threats and bribery to control students; Backbone Teachers: provide the upport and structure necessary for students to behave creatively, cooperatively, and responsibly, which lead to inner discipline.
- Disputes and problems are best resolved with a Win-Win solutions.
- Consequences, natural and reasonable, are associated with rules, and are to be allowed or invoked consistently when rules are violated.
- Natural consequences are events that happen naturally in the real world.
- Reasonable conseguences are events imposed by the teacher that are related to a violation of rules.
- The RSVP test is used to check on consequences the teacher imposes: Reasonable, Simple, Valuable, Practical.
- Students who experience consistent, logical realistic consequences learn that they themselves have positive control over their lives.
- When reasonable consequences are invoked, students frequently try to get teachers to change their minds.
- Relinquish traditional discipline in favor of truly participative classroom management.
- Do all that is possible to develop bonds of trust between teacher and students.
- Involve students seriously in discussions about curriculum, procedures, and class problems.
- Always ask the question: How can I bring my students into helping decide on this matter?
- Educators must look beyond the techniques of discipline and ask the question: What are we attempting to accomplish with discipline?
- Virtually all popular discipline programs are based on threat, reward, and punishment, used to gain student compliance.
- When students are rewarded or punished into compliance, they usually feel no commitment to what they are doing.
- Rules are of no practical value in the classroom.
- Some teachers - and most authorities in discipline - have an unrealistically negative view of students' basic motives.
- Student growth toward kindness, happiness, and self-fulfillment depends on working closely with fellow students.
- There is something a little suspicious about classrooms that operate too smoothly and cleanly.
- When concerns arise, the teacher should always ask students: "What do you think we can do to solve this problem?"
- Class meetings offer the best forum for addressing questions that affect the class.
- Education must be reformed so that classrooms take on the nature of communities.
- Teachers who wish to move beyond discipline must do three things:
- Provide an engaging curriculum
- Develop a sense of community
- Draw students into meaningful decision-making.
Kohn's Ten Key Points
- Work on establishing a trusting, caring relationship with your students. It is hard to work with a student to solve a problem unless the two of you already have a relationship on which to build.
- Work diligently toward acquiring in yourself, and developing in your students, skills of listening carefully, remaining calm, generating suggestions, and imagining someone else's point of view.
- When an unpleasant situation occurs, your first effort should be to diagnose what has happened and why. If you have a trusting relationship with students, you can gently ask them to speculate about why they hurt someone else's feelings, or why they keep coming late to class.
- To figure out what is really going on, be willing to look beyond the concrete situation. Do not immediately identify the student as the sole source of the problem while letting oneself off the hook. We should ask ourselves, or the student, or the class, what is really going on here? Can we do anything to help?
- Try sitting down in a friendly way and see if a plan can be made that will resolve the problem.
- Maximize student involvement in decision-making and problem-resolution. Individual students should be asked:
- What do you think we can do to solve this problem? Involving students is far more likely to lead to a meaningful, lasting solution than having the teacher decide unilaterally what must be done.
- Work with students on coming up with authentic solutions to problems. This requires not easy responses but an open-ended exploration of possibilities and reflection on motive.
- When students do something cruel, our first priority is to help them understand that what they did is wrong, and why it is wrong, to deter it from happening again. Then, an examination should be made of ways to make restitution or reparation, such as trying to restore, replace, repair, clean up, or apologize.
- Making amends is important and should be viewed as an essential part of the process, but more importantly, students must construct meaning for themselves around concepts of fairness and responsibility, just as they would around concepts in mathematics and literature.
- When new plans ore strategies are put into effect, be sure to review them later to see how they have worked.
- Remain flexible and use judgment concerning when you need to talk with a student about a problem.
- Sometimes it is better to delay the talk for a while so that student will feel more inclined to discuss it.
- On the rare occasions when you must use control, do so in a way that minimizes its punitive impact.
- Sometimes, despite your every effort, you will have to control misbehavior. A student may be disrupting the class, despite repeated requests not to do so. In that case you may have to isolate the student or send him or her from the room. But even then your tone should be warm and regretful and you should express confidence that the two of you will eventually solve the problem together.
C. M. Charles
- Discipline should always be helpful and never forceful.
- Put great emphasis on ethics, trust and joy in the classroom.
- Align actions with students' needs and the goals of education, which should always promote and never contravene.
- Attend to teacher needs, recognizing that teachers cannot contentedly use a discipline approach that disregards their needs.
- Collaborate. Teacher and students work together to establish and conduct class agreements and procedures.
- Be proactive rather than reactive. Anticipate behavior problems in advance and determine how to prevent or deal with them.
- Emphasize self-control and help everyone assume greater responsibility for their own behavior.
- Stresse ethical character and continually strives to strengthen it.
- Good discipline promotes quality communication and human relations.
Tasks Involved in Implementing Helpful Discipline
- Examine concepts you hold about discipline. Remove erroneous or counterproductive concepts and replace them with productive ones.
- Familiarize yourself with the seven fundamental human needs and their associated surface needs and behaviors. Learn how needs influence behavior and can be used to advantage.
- Identify you own basic needs and make sure your teaching and discipline systems are consistent with them.
- Adjust your curriculum and instruction to maximize their compatibility with human needs and the goals of education.
- Present yourself attractively to your students. Be interesting, enthusiastic, kind, caring and helpful. how your charisma.
- Learn what is meant by teacher-student collaboration, understand how it affects teaching, learning and discipline, and determine how you will use it in your classes.
- Learn what is meant by misbehavior, recognize the types of misbehavior that normally occur in the classroom, and identify the factors that cause misbehavior.
- Learn to remove, deactivate, or ameliorate the causes of misbehavior that originate in individuals or groups.
- Learn to address causes of misbehavior that originate in instructional environments and school personnel.
- Learn how to prevent misbehavior, support student self-control, and correct misbehavior in a positive manner.
- Learn what is meant by class character, the effects it has on learning and behavior, and how it can be strengthened.
- Learn how communication and human relations can be used to improve the overall quality of your class.
William Watson Purkey
Invitational discipline (1978) includes:
- Optimism: views individuals as able, valuable, and capable of self-development.
- Intentionality: maintains that an intentional pattern of individual behavior based on publicly affirmed ideals is the foundation for respect and trust, both for oneself and others.
- Respect: appreciates the rich complexity and unique value of each person.
- Trust: Recognizes the importance of human interdependence which generates patterns of actions represented by openness and involvement.