Examples of - facts, concepts, and generalizations
Unified processes evidence, models, and explanations
By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of evidence, models, and explanation.
Evidence consists of observations and data on which to base scientific explanations.
Use evidence to understand interactions and predict changes.
- Evidence is collected with observatons.
- Observation helps us learn.
- Observation helps understand interactions and predict changes.
- Use evidence gathered from an investigation to develop a scientific explanation.
- Practice helps us to be better observers.
- Predictions are guesses based on what people know.
- If people didn't have previous experiences, then there prediction is a "wild guess".
- Pictures can be used to represent features of objects being described.
Models are tentative schemes or structures that correspond to real objects, events, or classes of events, and that have explanatory power.
Make and use many models, including physical objects, plans, mental constructs, mathematical equations, and computer simulations to explain and predict what and how things happen in the real world.
- Pictures and drawings can be used to represent features of objects being described.
- An object’s motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time.
- Models are structures that are similar to real objects in some ways.
- Models may be missing detail, different size, or not able to do all of the same things.
- A model though different from the real thing can be used to learn something about the real thing.
- Create a model, graph, or illustration that represents an object, living thing, or an event.
- Explain and answer questions about a model and how it represents an object, living thing, or an event.
- Explanations provide interpretation, meaning, or sense to objects, organisms, or events.
- Explanations incorporate existing scientific knowledge and new evidence from observations, experiments, or models into internally consistent, logical statements, such as hypotheses, laws, principles, and theories.
- Students will create explanations which incorporate a scientific knowledge base, logic, and higher levels of analysis.
- Explain procedures or ideas in more than one way (e.g., sketches, charts, and graphs).
Explanations start with observation. Scientists raise questions about the world around them and seek answers to some of them by combining observation and trying things out.
- Objects can change and stay the same.
- Objects can be compared to other objects.
- Explanations tell how something does what it does
- People are more likely to believe your ideas if you give good reasons for them.
- One way to understand something is to think how it is like something else.
- Strong feelings can affect a person's reasoning.
- It is helpful to ask questions about what is happening to try and understand what is or has happened.
- Sometimes people aren’t sure what will happen because they don’t know everything that might be having an effect on the event.
- Some events are more likely to happen than others.
- Some events can be predicted more accurately than others.
- One way to describe something is to say how it is like something else.
Relative position, motioin, and force
By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the position and motion of objects.
- Objects are located relative to other objects.
- The position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling.
- Use reference points to describe the position of an object.
- Describe an object’s motion by tracing its position over time.
- Demonstrate that the position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling.
- Demonstrate how sound is produced when objects vibrate.
- Change the pitch of sound by changing the rate of vibration
Technology - Technological design
By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of technological design.
Designs (airplane) are changed based on results of experiments and reasoning how those changes will effect to whatever the changes are applied (flight of the new plane).
- A tool’s design and the purpose of the tool are closely related.
- Technology can be used to build or improve something.
- Tools are a part of technology and they are used to do things better, easier, and things that could not be done otherwise.
- Tools are used to make better observations and measurements.
- Some objects occur in nature (natural objects); others have been designed and made by people to solve human problems and enhance the quality of life (design or man made).
- Drawings and simple models can be used to plan technology.
- People help other people to make and improve things
- People use objects and ideas to solve problems.
- People can't always make what they design.
- Some materials are better than others for making particular things.
- Materials that are better in some ways (stronger, cheaper) may be worse in other ways (heavier, harder to form).
- Steps are usually involved in making things.
- Tools are helpful when making things.
- Some things can't be made with out tools.
- Each kind of tool has a special purpose.
- A variety of different materials (paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal) can be used with a variety of tools (hammers, screwdrivers, clamps, rulers, scissors, hand lenses, and audio-visual equipment) to make simple constructions.
- People alone or in groups are always inventing new ways to solve problems and do work.
- Tools and the ways people do things affect all aspects of life.
- Tools and ideas are technology.
- When people want to build something new they should consider how it might affect people.
- Materials used on airplanes today are different than materials of the past.
- Technology has allowed for the increased motor outputs and airplane speeds.
- Identify a simple problem.
- Communicate the problem, design, and solution.
- Propose a solution to a simple problem.
- Implement the proposed solution.
- Evaluate the implementation.
- Students will understand the influence of technology on today’s airplanes.
By the end of fourth grade, students will develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry
- Asking questions helps us learn.
- Changing objects can help us answer questions and learn.
- Communication helps us learn from other people.
- Pictures can be used to represent objects and events.
- Observations help collect information that can be used to answer questions.
- Communication helps us explain evidence and reasoning to each other.
- Communication helps us explain evidence and reasoning to each other.
- Communication requires a message being sent and received.
- Information can be communicated in many different ways each of which have advantages and disadvantages.
- Objects can be described and compared by properties.
- Science experiments normally have reproducible results and work the same way in different places.
- In science, it is helpful to work with a team and share findings with others.
- Tools can be used to make better and more accurate observations (magnifiers).
- People learn with careful observation.
- People learn by observing interactions with objects.
- People can plan and carry out experiments.
- Observations can be compared through communication of properties.
- Before and after pictures can be used to represent change.
- When people report different observations they can take more observations to try and find agreement.
- Tools help scientists make better observations, measurements, and equipment for investigations.
- Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in their surroundings.
- Plan and conduct a simple investigation.
- Use simple equipment and tools (e.g., thermometers and scales) to gather data and extend the senses.
- Use data develop reasonable explanations.
- Communicate procedures, results, and explanations of an investigation.
- Students will complete an experiment to solve a problem.
- Students will learn to investigate and form a hypothesis.
- Students will recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.
- Students will, when given evidence, develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models of the objects.
Energy and it’s relation to solids, liquids, and gasses
By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of objects and materials.
Matter occupies space and contains matter.
- Objects have many properties.
- Objects are identified and described by their properties.
- Magnets attract some metal objects.
- Objects can be made of one or more materials.
- Occupies space - has volume - no two objects can be in the same space at the same time.
- Is the stuff that all objects are made.
- Classify objects by observable characteristics (shape, size, and color).
- Compare and contrast characteristics of common materials using tools (e.g., rulers, scales, thermometers, microscopes, and hand lenses).
- Demonstrate that materials can change from solid to liquid to gas by heating and from gas to liquid to solid by cooling.
Social and personal
By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the types of resources.
- Airplanes run on fuel.
- Larger airplanes require more fuel.
- Many different resources must be combined for an airplane to fly.
- Airplanes are able to take off at different rates depending on the resources that are used.
- List examples of resources which are basic materials (e.g., air, water, and soil).
- List examples of resources produced from basic materials (e.g., food, fuel, and building materials).
- List examples of resources which are intangible materials (e.g., beauty, security, and quiet places).
- Research and report on the supply of various resources.
- tudents will know that airplane fuel is different than automobile fuel.
- Students will know that many resources are needed for an airplane to fly, not just fuel.
- Students will understand that there is a difference in automobile fuel and airplane fuel.
- Students will understand that many resources are needed to make an airplane fly. These include, petroleum products, metal products, etc.
- Students will work with others to complete an experiment or to solve a problem.
- Students will engage in group investigations.
- Students will communicate with group members to move an investigation in a positive direction.
Physical science - matter
By the end of the first grade, students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of materials.
All materials have the characteristics of mass (are made of stuff) and volume (take up space).
- Physical properties of ice, water, and steam are...
- Objects can be grouped according to their physical characteristics.
- Objects are composted of parts that are too small to be seen.
- Objects are composed of their own unique parts.
- Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of ice, water, and steam.
- Students will describe the physical properties of solids, liquids and gases.
- Students will operationally define how solids, liquids, and gases act when placed in a container.
- Students know the physical change from one state of matter to another is called a change of state.
- The more thermal energy a substance has, the faster its particles move.
- Students will observe, describe, and measure physical and chemical properties of matter.
Aerodynamics and the Flight of Airplanes
Physical Science Standard
By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of motion and forces
- Airplanes use air to fly.
- Bernoulli's principle: pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressure of the surrounding fluid.
- Airplane wings are curved, the air that moves along the top of the wing must travel farther than the air that moves along the bottom of the wing.
- Airplanes use fuel and air pressure to lift into the air.
- Airplanes use a basic law of physics that for every force, or action, there is an equal and opposite force, or reaction.
- Airplanes are able to fly because of the force created by the airplane engine.
- Airplanes are able to maneuver because of the rotors on an airplane.
- Airplanes are affected by the weather.
- Airplanes can travel different distances depending on their fuel capacity and fuel usage.
- Students will know how air affects the flight of planes.
- Students will communicate and explain modern airplane technology
- Students will understand the Bernoulli's principle and the effects of air on airplanes and aerodynamics.
- Describe the motion of an airplane by its position, direction of motion, and speed.
- Demonstrate that the speed and/or direction of an airplane changes when a force is applied to it.
- Students will understand how an airplane uses motion to fly.
- Students will know that speed and/or direction of an airplane changes when a force is applied to it.
- Students will know the basic principles behind aerodynamics and airplanes.
- Students will know the basic resources that are needed to create an airplane.
- Students know that airplanes can fly. Students will understand that different airplane sizes require different amounts of force for flight.
- Students will understand that many resources are needed to construct an airplane that is capable of flying.
- Students will identify basic airplane parts off of a classroom model.
- Students will understand that different airplanes require different fuels.
- Students will understand that size affects speed.
- Students will identify different factors that cause a change in airplane speed.
- Students will identify different factors that determine how far a plane can fly.
- Students will understand that cars take a different fuel than airplanes, and airplanes take a different fuel than jets.
- Students will describe how objects can change shape depending on the force and energy placed on it.