Technology design, systems, and information processing Concepts
Initial perceptual naive misconceptions (any age)
Beginning (preschool - 7 years)
- People use objects and ideas to solve problems.
- People can't always make what they design.
- Some materials are better than others for making particular things.
- Materials that are better in some ways (stronger, cheaper) may be worse in other ways (heavier, harder to form).
- Steps are usually involved in making things.
- Tools are helpful when making things.
- Some things can't be made with out tools.
- Each kind of tool has a special purpose.
- People use different devices and media to communicate or send and receive information.
- A variety of different materials (paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal) can be used with a variety of tools (hammers, screwdrivers, clamps, rulers, scissors, hand lenses, and audio-visual equipment) to make simple constructions.
Intermediate (7 years - 11 years)
- There is no perfect design.
- Solutions for one problem may cause another and create trade-offs in designs.
- Even good designs may have flaws or fail.
- Material can be processed or combined with others to change their properties.
- Through science and technology people have created materials with a wide range of properties (steel, rayon, crystals).
- Discarded materials contribute to the waste problem.
- Many materials can be recycled or the amount of waste can be decreased with better production methods.
- Through mass production the time and cost of making something can be reduced.
- Most things in the world are made with automated machines that require people to run.
- Simple tools and materials can be used to make simple mechanical constructions and repair things.
- Measurement in the kitchen, garage, or laboratory can help in construction and being safe.
- Written documents that describe detailed observations, ideas, and predictions can be understood weeks or months later.
- Calculations of length, area, volume, time, cost, weight, can he helpful in making decisions.
- Safety should always be of primary concern.
- Audio and video equipment can be used to capture information.
- Patterns can be used to encode information, which can be sent, received, and decode if it is to be understood.
- Designs have limits that are based on physical properties of matter, energy, society, personal, and other conditions.
- Waves can be used to transmit digital information.
- All designs and technologies may have effects that were not anticipated.
- Almost all systems have inputs, outputs, and feedback.
- Digitized information is a pattern made with on and off current or 1s and 0s.
- Digital information can store large amounts of information which can be stored and shipped.
- Control is requires sensing information, processing it, and making changes.
- Systems fail because of poor design, selection of materials, use that exceeds design expectations, while testing and redundancy is used to reduce failure.
- The choice of materials for a task depend on the properties of the materials and how they will contribute to the successful production of the product.
- Manufacturing requires a series of steps (design, obtaining and preparing raw materials, processing the materials, assembly, testing, inspecting, packaging) that are important.
- Modern technology reduces production costs and produces a more uniform product.
- The use of synthetic materials can reduce the depletion of natural resources.
- Automation has change the nature of work (higher skills, knowledge of technology, engineering , quality control, supervision, maintenance).
- Computers can be used to store information.
- A variety of instruments can be used to measure, length, temperature, volume, mass, weight, elapsed time, rate, and reported with appropriate units to help in design and building.
- You can inspect a device by taking it apart, looking at the parts, and reassemble it to see how it works.
- You can also make changes and see the results.