Educational Timeline of Significant People and Events in American Education and its Roots
- Present era - After compulsory Ed in all states (1918-present)
- Summary of instructional changes in the 60's, 70's and beyond
- Education as Compulsory and Teachers as Professionals
(1850 - 1918)
- Early American Education
(1776 - 1850)
- Colonial education and its roots
prior to 1776
- 480 BCE
Education as Compulsory, Standardized Curriculum, and Teaching Profession 1918 - Present
Summary of change entering 2010
Professional Educator roles have changed in several ways:
- From each teacher finding their own teaching style to teaching being defined by a professional community or board,
- From teaching as dispensing information to teaching as facilitating student's construction of knowledge and learning how to learn,
- From teaching as technical work to inquiry with authentic instruction,
- From controlling student behavior to being accountable for student performance,
- From teachers being managed to teachers as leaders,
- From learning taking place in the classroom to learning in the world community,
- From an undefined knowledge base to a rigorous and broadly defined common core knowledge base for students connected to a teacher's knowledge base on creating curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Along with new additional ideas like:
- Teacher's beliefs and experiences affect what they teach.
- Knowledge of children and adolescents is crucial for teaching and student understanding.
- Teachers need opportunities to plan, reflect, and analyze to improve their teaching and student learning.
Summary of the later Twentieth Century
Political ideas in the 1920's... that influenced educators and the public who made educational decisions were: free public education for all, compulsory education, elementary school goals and objects with a focus on literacy through the subjects of reading, writing, arithmetic and disciplined study to ready students for a more rigorous secondary education. Secondary school goals and objectives were oriented toward college prep for the able, vocational studies for the less able, and preparation for everyone to become productive obedient citizens. Taught by certified teachers, using direct instruction methodologies in group settings and a subject centered curriculum. Quality education was subsidized by women who were limited by lack of professional job opportunities in other areas of employment. This increased the number and quality of professional educators while it depressed wages and reduced taxes. This began to change as employment opportunities opened to women after the mid 1900's.
Educational ideas in the 1920's that influenced education:
- Information was packaged in subjects, measured with Carnegie Units, in a seven and eight period day, over an average 180 day school year. Information was delivered through lecture and textbooks and assessed with standardized tests which were largely multiple choice.
Information At the beginning of the century the Committee of Ten standardized information by subjects and somewhat delineated relevant content they important. At the other end of the century professional organizations for different subjects gathered and wrote standards for content, teaching, and administration based on their particular subjects. P21 Partnership for 21st Century Learning wrote standards that included life learning skills. Information selected and described by all these committees some consider ideological or dogmatic. A large segment of the general public believe it is sufficient that content be limited to a collection of common facts necessary to be job ready at graduation. They chide a liberal education that is open to investigation that encourages problem solving and critical thinking about big ideas through alternate paths of study that often culminates in uncertainty and skepticism with the discovery of multiple possibilities. This liberal or progressive education is often coupled with student interest met with student empowerment and choice, which many people believe will result in students making poor choices and not working hard enough to achieve a high quality elite education. Openness allows for many entry points of learning, makes room for different voices, is the best guarantee to discover and fixes errors so children and adolescents learn better and educators learn how to make education better. Learning, education and schooling are always works in progress.
- Mandatory education for all children and adolescents of a certain age increased the number of students. This created a need for an increase in the total number of schools or for each school to be larger to meet the demand of the increasing enrollment.
- Education for all. In the twentieth century the idea of a public education for all, equal access, school choice, and the idea all students can learn became stronger as the century unfolded. Toward the beginning of the century, 1918, compulsory education laws existed in all states. However, few people believed all really meant all children. Women, non-white, handicapped, ability, poor, and LBGTQ ( lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questionable people) were mostly thought to be less able or worthy of a high quality education. These changes were influenced by greater acceptance of a more broad definition of all. Events such as in 1920 women were granted the right to vote, 1954 with Brown vs. Board of Education affect on segregation amid separate and equal, 1928 restructure of Native American education, 1969 and later laws for children with learning disabilities, and 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Title 1 to address socio-economic limitations. ...
- Limited resources created a desire to find economical and efficient solutions. A simple solution was to put greater numbers of students in schools and increase class sizes. As crowding increased larger building were built and benefited by having greater resources in a common location. This lead to thinking of consolidation of school districts as more efficient and economical. Specialization of teachers in the upper grades. Instead of increasing school districts more and more states choose to consolidate school boards into bigger districts decreasing the number of independent school districts in the U.S.
1920 - 200 000+; 1952 - 67 000; 1982 - 14 851; 2012 - 12 880; Source
This decrease in school boards and districts had a significant detrimental effect of reducing the number of school board members. Community leaders who had a vested personal involvement dedicated to know what was happening in their schools to make decisions that would best benefit their students in a democratic manner. For example: if there were 200 000+ school boards in 1920 with an average of 8 members per board, that would be 1.6 million board members. In 2012 if there were12 880, then that would be about 100 000. That is a significant difference that would seem to have a large effect on people's positive involvement in education. Further, if the increase in population from 1920 to today was considered, then the increase of the number of people that each board member represents is even more detrimental to school community relations.
- Governance. As schools and districts grew so did concerns of governance, quality of instruction, standardization, evaluation, and accountability of teaching and learning. Hierarchal bureaucracies were created, similar to military and factory organizations to address these concerns, too often, with the belief they could be managed with rewards (merit pay, grading, scholarships, ...) and punishment (school closure, expulsion, firing teachers...). Thinking of learning as production on an assembly line factory managed with efficient spending of resources and effective instructional methods to achieve a quality standardized education. Creation of instructional methodologies (mastery learning, directed instruction, cooperative learning, learning cycle ...), effective instructional strategies, teacher proof curriculum, scripted teaching, standardized uniform curriculum, ...
Control of schools moves from teacher and boards of education to state and national government. With more rules and regulations being imposed top down in the name of accountability and standardization with high stakes standardized tests used to rate students and schools. Eliminating local control and personal choice and empowerment of students and teachers, parents and communities.
- Validation of organizational patterns and instructional methodologies being substantiated with information analyzed through scientific and statistical means. Standardized testing to sort students and validate achievement, teacher assessment, teacher training with the teacher in a scripted role of technocrat. Required entry level testing, certification testing, teacher observation, peer evaluation... All based on the assumption that if one can define it, then it can be measured.
- Teachers seek to become seen as a profession and attain better working conditions through collective bargaining by forming the National Education Association (NEA) and American Federation of Teachers (AFT). Teachers negotiated with school boards issues such as: due process, job protection from irrational dismissal, and an equitable wage. However, many studies suggest self-governance or teacher autonomy is more important to teachers than higher wages. Important for not only empowering teachers as professionals, but to also create an environment were students see self-governance in action so they may learn that democracies can be messy, but they can also work.
Janus v. AFSCME (American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees) challenges the fair share fees unions, in 23 states, charge non union members to cover their share of cost to bargain and represent them; for which the union is legally required to represent when bargaining.
Teacher strikes in West Virginia, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Arizona, Colorado
Teachers depressed salaries and low per pupil funding causes teachers to strike for modest increases in wages, health & retirement benefits, and greater per pupil spending.
United States Commission on Civil Rights released a report on the: Public Education Funding Inequity: In an Era of Increasing Concentration of Poverty and Resegregation. The report noted there is still widespread funding inequalities across state education systems that -
"... render the education available to millions of American public school students profoundly unequal." "...low-income students and students of color are often relegated to low-quality school facilities that lack access to teachers, instructional materials, technology support, critical facilities, and physical maintenance." Source
US students are receiving an inadequate education about the role of slavery in American history. Found and reported by The Southern poverty Law Center (SPLC). Teaching hard history: American slavery. SPLC 2018. Atlanta: Georgia.
We Will Rise. Michelle Obama's Mission to Educate Girls Around the World.
The First Lady, Meryl Streep, Freida Pinto and CNN's Isha Sesay take a journey to Morocco and Liberia, where they meet young women overcoming incredible odds to change their lives.
Video, We Will Rise. (1 hour) may need to login through cable provider for CNN.
Washington State Court Rules Against Charters
In September 2015 the court ruled, charter schools violate the state's constitution and overturned a 2012 law, which allowed public tax money to be used to fund private schools. The ruling contends:
- The constitution requires the legislature to provide a general and uniform public school system.
- The entire revenue from the common school fund and state taxes shall be exclusively used for the common school.
- Common schools defined as schools that are common to all children of proper age and capacity, free, and subject to and under the control of the qualified voters of the school district.
- Charter schools do not qualify as common schools and can not receive public tax dollars.
- Washington's charter schools are not governed by locally elected boards, lack democratic transparency and accountability since they are managed by private organizations that appoint their own boards.
Kindergarten & school attendance requirements - 2015
- 34 states requiring school districts to provide ½ day kindergarten
- 11 states plus D.C. require full day kindergarten: 11
- 5 states (Alaska, Idaho, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey [only Abbott districts must] do not require districts to offer kindergarten.
- 15 states plus DC require children to attend kindergarten (35 do not)
- – The most common birth date by which children must turn 5 to be eligible to enroll in kindergarten is September 1 (19 states). Other sates birth date cut-off ranges from as early as July 31 (Hawaii, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota) to as late as January 1 (Connecticut).
Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA)
Senate bill Every Child Achieves (81-17):
Reauthorizes and amends (ESEA).
- It addresses: accountability and testing requirements, distribution and requirements for grants, fiscal accountability requirements, and the evaluation of teachers.
- Provides states with increased flexibility and responsibility for developing accountability systems, how required tests are weighed, selection of additional performance measures, and teacher evaluation systems. Requires states to set a time limit cap on tests and allow parents to let their children opt out of standardized tests.
- Includes grants for providing language programs, improving low-performing schools, and programs for American Native students.
- Provides rural school districts with increased flexibility in using federal funding.
- Revises Impact Aid formula.
- Requires school districts to consult stakeholders in planning and implementing programs to improve student safety, health, well-being, and academic achievement.
- Combines existing charter school programs into one program. Includes grants for high-quality charter schools, facilities financing assistance, and replication and expansion.
- Provides states flexibility in meeting maintenance of effort requirements for state and local funding to supplement federal assistance.
- Prohibits the Department of Education from imposing certain requirements on states or school districts seeking waivers from federal laws.
- Provides ESEA dollars to be used to improve early childhood education programs and requirements to ensure homeless youth access to all services provided by the states and school districts.
- Makes career and technical education a core subject.
- Funds to improve and modernize school libraries.
House bill Student Success Act (218-213):
- Reduces the federal role in education for students.
- Has many of the same funding of grant money, but allows greater flexibility to move money.
- Let's states retain vouchers
- Requires math, reading/ language arts, and science as core subjects. Lets states include additional if they desire.
How will they be reconciled?
The U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear the B.H.& K.M. v. Easton Area School District case, upholding the lower courts ruling that wearing rubber bracelets with the phrase "I ♥ Boobies! (Keep A Breast)" may be protected by the First Amendment right to free speech. On Breast Awareness Day two middle school students were asked to remove their bracelets, they refused and were punished by being denied to attend extra-curricular activities. The court was informed by the fact that “there were no incidents presented to the Court of any disruption prior to the School’s bracelet ban.”
Morse v. Frederick. The US. Supreme Court ruled (5-4) that while students do have some right to political speech, schools may restrict student speech at school sponsored events if the speech promotes illegal drug use. At a school sponsored event, Joseph Frederick displayed a banner with "Bong Hits 4 Jesus." The principal Deborah Morse took away the banner and suspended Frederick for ten days. She used the school policy against the display of material that promotes the use of illegal drugs to justified her.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is reauthorized again.
2004 School personnel given more authority for special education placement. And better alignment with the No Child Left Behind Act.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB), increased the federal role in public education. It did not provide national standards, but required states to develop or adopt their own standards. It focused on accountability through state-mandated standardized testing and punishment to improve schools and ultimately the education of our youth.
States were required to use their designated standards and create a system that used standardized annual testing to collect multiple measures to determine if adequate yearly progress (AYP) was meet and report this information to the public and government officials for the evaluative purpose of rewarding and punishing schools through Title 1 funding and corrective measures. States were also required to determine what highly qualified teachers were.
- Schools that miss AYP two consecutive years are publicly labeled as in need of improvement and must develop a two-year improvement plan. Their students were permitted to transfer to a better school in the district, if one exists.
- If AYP is not met the third year, they must provide free tutoring and additional support services for students.
- If AYP is not met a fourth consecutive year, they are required to take corrective action, which can be replacement of all staff, introduction of a new curriculum, increase class time for students.
- After a fifth consecutive year, they must develop a plan to restructure the entire school. The plan must be implemented if AYP is not achieved in the sixth year. restructure plans can be to close the school, turn it into a charter school, hire a private company to run the school, or have the state take it over.
Canady v. Bossier Parish School Board 2001.
In the 1998-1999 school year,the school board decided implemented a mandatory school uniform policy. Parents challenged the new dress code on First Amendment grounds. The Fifth district court ruled that dress could be a form of expression protected by the first amendment the policy could be upheld if it supported and important or substantial government interest, that interest was unrelated to the suppression of student expression, and restrictions to speech were no more than necessary to further the state interest. It was not meant to curtail any particular viewpoint or message.
1996 & 2003
Affirmative action, quotas, and race
Hopwood v. Texas, 78 F.3d 932 (5th Cir. 1996), challenged the University of Texas at Austin's School of Law admissions policy on equal protection grounds and won. Four white students who were rejected despite having better combined LSAT and grade scores than 36 of the 43 Latinos admitted, and 16 of the 18 black students admitted .
On June 23, 2003, the Supreme Court abrogated Hopwood by finding the United States Constitution "does not prohibit the law school's narrow use of race in admissions decisions to further a compelling interest in obtaining a diverse student body. The ruling meant that universities in the Fifth Circuit's jurisdiction can again use race as a factor in admissions (as long as quotas are not used as in Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003). Source
1999, 2001, 2003
Standardized tests, SAT, as biased admission criteria
Cureton v. NCAA , Black student-athletes who met the NCAA grade point average requirement but not minimum SAT score. The district court ruled Proposition 16 had a disparate impact on African-American students and violated Title VI. However, the Third Circuit Court reversed the decision. Stating, Title VI only applied to programs or activities using federal funds and since the NCAA does not directly admit students, Title VI does not apply. Furthermore, the Alexander v. Sandoval decision states Title VI only covers intentional discrimination and NCAA argued it wasn't intentional, but trying to insure greater success of athletes.
Pryor v. NCAA (1999), Kelly Pryor and Warren Spivey were offered athletic scholarships in 1999. However, neither student was able to meet Proposition 16 guidelines. The Third District Court ruled in favor of the NCAA, but said it could be possible to bring successful purposeful discrimination suits against the NCAA. Pryor and Spivey argued the NCAA knew Black athletes would receive fewer scholarship. The NCAA stated their intentions were to increase Black athletes graduation rates and not to discriminate against any athlete. District court ruled in favor of NCAA and no intentional discrimination.
Pryor and Spivey (2003) appealed to the Third Circuit Court It ruled there was a sufficient claim for purposeful discrimination under Title VI. However, it also ruled the claim did not hold, because Alexander v. Sandoval ruling prevents Title VI from being used by private action.
Alexander v. Sandoval (2001) United States Supreme Court decision held a regulation enacted under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not include a private right of action to allow private lawsuits based on evidence of disparate impact (meaning it may be considered discriminatory if it has a disproportionate adverse impact against any group based on race, national origin, color, religion, sex, familial status, or disability). Thus, making it difficult for private citizens to sue public entities, by requiring they prove intentional discrimination.
However, these cases demonstrate legal actions can create social pressure for change if court decisions do not demand it.
Institutions should be wary if they use entrance exams. They should carefully evaluate their admission requirements and be prepared to justify possible effects on graduation rates of their applicant pools. Source
Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
- Adding regular education teachers to the IEP process
- Providing students more access to the general curriculum.
- Include students in state-wide assessments
- Add ADHD to the list of conditions for eligibility of services under the category, other health impairment.
US. Department of Education urges schools to adopt uniforms as a strategy to reduce school violence. It claims to:
- Decrease violence and theft.
- Prevent gang members from wearing gang colors and signs at school.
- Help students learn to be more disciplined.
- Resist peer pressure.
- Identify non students that might be in school.
Brain and emotion
The Emotional Brain, written by Joseph E. LeDoux, an American neuroscientist, may be a landmark for greater acceptance of how little control people have over their emotional reactions and the power of emotions as motivators for the decisions we make. Especially brain and endocrine mechanisms related to memory, pleasure, love, anger, fear, anxiety, and addiction.
What Matters Most: Teaching and America's Future, by the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1996.
- Standards for teaching
- Connecting teacher standards to student standards
- Higher requirements for teacher licensure and renewal
- Rigorous testing of teacher knowledge
- Overhaul preservice teacher preparation programs and close program that don't meet national standards.
- Incentives and rewards for star teachers
- Peer assistance to help teachers needing improvement
- Dismissal of teachers not meeting standards
- Improved working and learning environments for teachers and students.
Teach for America was founded by Wendy Kopp. 1990.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1990.
PL 94-142 is renamed to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) .
- The document replaces the term, disability, with, handicap.
- Requires transition services for students.
- Adds autism and traumatic brain injury to the eligibility list.
See also 1975 PL 94-142
Albert Shanker, president of the American Federation of Teachers articulated a vision of a school where students would be diverse culturally, racially, and socioeconomically. Were teachers would collaborate and experiment with fresh innovative pedagogical approaches and curriculum. Where what they learned would be shared with traditional schools to improve them.
In his vision these schools were administratively included within current education schools districts or systems. He believed in democracy and the importance of students seeing it modeled first hand in their classes and by seeing teachers as active participants in the decision making of the charter school. He also believed unions played a critical role in democratic societies and wanted charter schools unionized.
His ideas were sparked with a visit to a school in Cologne, Germany, which was very unlike the traditional tightly tracked German schools. This school had teams of teachers who had considerable input in how the school was run and were empowered to make pedagogical decisions and curriculum choices. Teachers stayed with a class of students for six years. Students were of mixed abilities, family incomes and ethnic origins. Immigrants were educated alongside native students in mixed-ability groups. Resulting in 60% doing well enough to be admitted to a four-year college. This can be compared to 27% of students nationally.
See New York Times: The Original Charter School Vision for additional information.
1987, 1991, 1995, 2013
New Jersey was the first state to take over a school district.
New Jersey passed legislation in 1987 authorizing the state’s takeover of Jersey City schools the following year. The state went on to take over operations of the Paterson schools in 1991, Newark public schools in 1995, and Camden public schools in 2013. Source
For a story of Newark's schools from 1995-2014 see The Prize by Dale Russakaoff. She does an excellent job of presenting an unbiased narrative of Newark's dilemma of how to improve failing schools in a dysfunctional educational and political culture. The complexities of building an education system based on corporate culture profit, loss, incentives, bonuses, merit pay, closures, and firings. The prize - Newark's billion dollar budget. Where the only winners seem to be students who have parents who are able to negotiate a school system maze and enroll their child in a winning school. To achieve good schools where all students might be successful in Charters and Public Schools she concludes both must operate within a community where parents are involved, that medical and mental health services are available, community jobs or services overcome poverty, trauma, and neglect and students needs and interests are met. Will Newark become the charter school capital of the nation?
A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century, Carnegie Report
Claimed a professionalized teaching force based on a new system of high standards was necessary for student success. A system with high academic achievement standards for students and high standards for teachers in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Standards created and implemented by a national board of teachers who would be seen as leaders of the profession. When this was put in place, it claimed students would succeed.
Bethel School District v. Fraser. 1986. Court ruled (7-2) student speech may be restricted if it interferes with the educational process. Matthew Fraser, at a High School assembly, gave a nomination speech for a classmate which included what some thought as graphic and sexual in nature. Matt was suspended two days. The court agreed political speech was protected, but vulgar and lewd speech was not since it was not within the fundamental values of public school education.
Accountability, Back to the Basics, and Standards, 1985.
- Total Quality Education (TQE) born from Total Quality Management (TQM) who W. E. Demings and others wrote and lectured that frequent monitoring of a processes was necessary to achieve a quality desired outcome. Not really strong as total curriculum.
- Outcome-Based Education (OBE) a process to define goals, specific classroom behaviors, and outcomes with emphasis on outcomes. William Spady based it on 1. clarity of focus, 2. top down design, 3. high expectations, and 4. expanded opportunity.
- Performance Based Education,
- Standards based education. While standards were being worked on the real impact was more 1990 and beyond. Standards
- High Performance Learning,
- Transformational Education,
- Competency-Based Education
First open enrollment law was passed in Minnesota, 1985.
In 1989 Arkansas, Iowa, Nebraska, and Ohio, passed open enrollment legislation and in 1990 Idaho, Utah, and Washington did.
Open enrollment may be voluntary or mandatory at a state or district level, and may allow intra district or inter district transfer. Voluntary allows individual schools or districts to decide whether they will accept students who live outside their boundaries. Mandatory requires all districts to provide the option and accept student requests, although a policy can be restricted by opt-out provisions, priorities , or desegregation provisions within different laws. Intra district policies allow student admission to a school outside their assigned district. Inter district policies allow student to attend schools across district boundaries as well as within districts.
Hopwood v. Texas, 78 F.3d 932 (5th Cir. 1996), was the first successful legal challenge to a university's affirmative action policy in student admissions since Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). In Hopwood, four white plaintiffs who had been rejected from University of Texas at Austin's School of Law challenged the institution's admissions policy on equal protection grounds and prevailed. After seven years as a precedent in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, the Hopwood decision was abrogated by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2003.
On June 23, 2003, the Supreme Court abrogated Hopwood in Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003) in which the high court found that the United States Constitution "does not prohibit the law school's narrowly tailored use of race in admissions decisions to further a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body". The ruling means that universities in the Fifth Circuit's jurisdiction can again use race as a factor in admissions (as long as quotas are not used, per Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003)).
Multiple Intelligences. 1983
Howard Gardner published, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Where he introduced and described eight intelligences.
In 1985 Sternberg suggested three fundamental kinds of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical. These ideas can be used to describe authentic learning. They may also be applied to describe how each of the eight intelligences can be applied analytically, creatively, and practically.
A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform, published by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. 1983.
Claimed American schools were failing and suggested ideas for improvement:
- Greater accountability in terms of student achievement
- More empirical knowledge
- Greater time for science, mathematics and technology
- Longer school days and school year
- Higher requirements for graduation
Two quotes most often reported:
...the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and a people..
If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war.
1980, 1970, 1960
Computers and Curriculum
Computers added to the classroom and computer labs.
Seymore Papert in Mindstorms (1980) describes three ways for students to use computers, as a: tutor, tutee, and tool. Wrote about the role of Microworlds, a term coined by MIT Media Lab Learning and Common Sense Group, for students to explore concepts.
1970 University of Illinois Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO) system Most notably for math, algebra.
1960 Patrick Suppes at Stanford University designed computer systems with branching, feedback, and tracking of student progress.
Roger Lennon worked with Arthur Otis to publish the first edition of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) in 1979. The OLSAT is a group administered school ability test of verbal and nonverbal abilities. It is easier and less expensive to administer than the Stanford Binet or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, however it's less reliable at higher levels. Source
Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act. 1975
This act allowed approximately 130,000 refugees from South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia to enter the United States with a special status, and financed their transportation, processing, reception, and resettlement costs. Most were Vietnamese evacuated from Vietnam after the war. They were granted a parole status and processed through the parole system over seen by the Attorney General of the United States. The resettlement process was aided by dozens of immigration agencies through the United States.
Indian Education Act. 1975
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142). 1975
Mandated free appropriate public education for all students.
See also 1990 IDEA.
Title IX Education Amendment, Section 1681- Sex. 1972
Congress prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex.
Instruction and planning became systematized, standardized, and proceduralized
Mastery learning and mastery teaching 1967+
Benjamin Bloom, Learning for Mastery (1968). Advocated, mastery learning, instruction that used assessment initially and periodically to identify what students know so feedback with corrective procedures could be determined that match students needs to enhance their learning so they might attain master of content at an accuracy level of 90% or higher. If students didn't achieve mastery, after initial instruction, they would cycle through more instruction. While those who were successful were given enrichment activities to elaborate and deepen their understanding.
Madeline Hunter's approach to master was described in a seven step instructional, which she referred as elements of a lesson design. Briefly the first four steps; were to focus on, define, provide input, and model the intended learnings; followed by three assessment steps: to check for understanding, and assess during guided and independent practice. The planning guide was part of what she called an Instructional Theory into Practice Teaching Model (ITIP).
- Madeline Hunter Teach More–Faster!. (1967)
- Madeline Hunter Teaching Is Decision Making. (1979) Educational Leadership 37 (1):62–65.
- Madeline Hunter. Mastery Teaching. 1982
John Dewey and others advocated Constructivist teaching early in the early 1900's, however, it wasn't until 1967 that a systematized constructivist instructional theory was introduced: The Learning Cycle by Robert Karplus and Herbert Thier as a conceptual organizer to guide the teacher's interactions with a classroom of students. Three stages: exploration, invention, and discover were included that are characterized by:
- Student-centered. Accepts students have preconceived ideas they must explore and discover their value based on reasoning and data.
- Observation of concrete materials to use as evidence combined with primary sources must be used for students to explore, invent, and discover new ideas.
- People learn by equilibration.
- People learn with their exploration, categorization, communication, construction, negotiation, translation, extension, reflection, and self-assessment to construct explanations and understanding.
- Teachers understand learning is interactive and they must encourage students with questions, wait-time and encourages them to be open-minded as they negotiate construction of explanation and understanding.
- Embedded in the a learning cycle theory is initial recognition of the importance of self, beliefs, motivation, metacognition, cognitive theory, and knowledge expression (how what is deemed important to learn is defined and expressed, as subjects, literacy, integration, curriculum ...).
Cooperative learning 1974+
Early contributions 1900-1950
- Social theory began to recognize cooperative learning was more effective and efficient in quantity, quality, and overall productivity than working alone.
- M. May and L. Doob found that people who cooperate to achieve common goals, were more successful, than independent people who completed the same goals. The independent achievers also demonstrated more competitive behavior.
- John Dewey's contributions to today's cooperative learning theory are: importance of school and democracy, students as active recipients of knowledge, students being engaged in the learning process, students communication with peers, and less teacher lecture.
- Kurt Lewin’s contributions to cooperative learning are: ideas of the importance of relationships between group members to achieve learning goals.
- Morton Deutsh’s contribution to cooperative learning was positive social interdependence, and student responsible to contribute to group learning.
These ideas were combined by David and Roger Johnson into a systematized planning and instructional procedure and cooperative learning theory from the mid 1970's into the 1980's and 1990's.
In 1975, they identified that cooperative learning promoted positive relationships between students, positive feelings about the subject matter, better communication, higher achievement, and greater use of higher-order social, personal and cognitive skills. Johnson and Johnson published the 5 elements positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual and group accountability, interpersonal or small group skills, and group processing. Cooperative learning theory, benefits, elements, steps, strategies, and planning information.
Reciprocal teaching 1982+
Brown & Paliscar developed reciprocal teaching, a type of cooperative learning developed for reading. It has been expanded for other subject areas with a more general procedure that can be used with pairs or small groups.
Griggs v. Duke Power Company and use of intelligence tests to discriminate. 1970.
Black employees sued their employer, Duke Power Company, contending that it violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by requiring a high school diploma and a satisfactory intelligence test score for certain jobs previously limited to white employees. The Supreme Court ruled these employment requirements did not relate to the ability of an applicant to perform the job. Therefore, they discriminated against black employees. Source
Kent State Riot. Kent, Ohio May 4, 1970. 2,000 students gathered to protest President Nixon's announcement to invade Cambodia when members of the National Guard fired 67 rounds into the crowd. In the following days small fires were set, window destroyed, and an ROTC building was set on fire. Four protesters were killed, and nine were injured.
Congress passes the Children with Specific Learning Disabilities Act. 1969
The first time federal law mandated support services for students with learning disabilities. It was The Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1969: Title VI, Included in the Education of the Handicapped Act.
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). 1969
Created to assess the state of education in the U. S. It has been tauted as a model assessment program. It uses a matrix sampling design, does not require any student take the entire test in any subject, combines open-ended questioning with multiple-choice, is a criterion-referenced test, and is designed for longitudinal comparisons. With standards of comparison set high, student performance can cause questionable concerns that can be exploited with both positive and negative consequences.
Sesame Street debut. November 10, 1969
Joan Ganz Cooney, a former documentary producer for public television, created a pioneering TV show to teach young children. The show will evolve beyond teaching the alphabet and how to count, to include many issues relevant to young children. Its theme song Can you tell me how to get ... How to get to Sesame Street is one of the most recognized songs in the world. Sesame Street setting is, today in a New York neighborhood. With characters who are ethnically diverse. Plots are short fast moving vignettes that teach literacy and have themes positive social messages.
Fred Rogers appeared before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Communications in 1969. To gain support for funding for PBS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, in response to significant proposed cuts by President Nixon. See his 6:50 presentation recorded on Video.
In 1969 the Supreme court in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District ruled (7-2) schools may restrict students expressions of speech if the school expects the speech to substantially disrupt the educational process or setting.
In December 1965 school officials heard students planned to wear black armbands to school in support of a Vietnam truce. Students were warned that if they did, they would be sent home. Beth Tinker & Christopher Eckhardt did and were sent home. Their parents filed suit claiming a violation of their free speech.
Professionalization of Nebraska public school teachers. 1967
- Teaching K-12 was recognized as a profession (LB 457) and the Professional Practices Commission was created.
- K-12 teachers were given a three year probationary period after which they were protected against unwarranted and unjustified dismissal with a hearing process.
- Teachers were given the right to negotiate salaries and benefits (LB 485)
- Falls City Education Association was the first to complete a negotiation agreement and salary schedule under the provisions of LB 485.
Source The Voice February 2017, NSEA at 150.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 1965
Provided federal funding based on the number of poor students in the school district through Title I to support services in math and reading to children in low-income schools. Funding required norm-referenced objective testing measures for student identification and evaluation of achievement. In years to come Title I would be renamed Chapter 1 and back to Title I with evaluation measures having a large impact on student assessment as most districts receive these funds and a majority of elementary schools in the U.S.
Abington School District v. Schempp
The United States Supreme Court ruled 8-1 that " ... no state law or school board may require that passages from the Bible be read or that the Lord's Prayer be recited in the public schools of a State at the beginning of each school day -- even if individual students may be excused from attending or participating in such exercises upon written request of their parents." Source
Largest student led protest was at the University of California Berkeley on December 2, 1964. 1,500 students protested the expulsion of students involved in a Free Speech Movement by camping out in a campus building before being removed by the police. Over 750 students were arrested. The university chose not to expel them and lose tuition, which was a large amount of the school's budget.
Learning disability. 1963
The term learning disability is used for the first time by Samuel A. Kirk at a conference in Chicago.
James H. Meredith, is the first African American to graduate from The University of Mississippi on Aug. 19, 1963. The University ignored a court order to enroll him until President Kennedy sent U.S. troops, National Guardsmen, U.S. Marshals, and the Governor sent state highway patrolmen to the Ole Miss campus on September 29, 1962. Tear gas and gunfire left scores wounded and two men dead. Source
The U. S. Supreme Court banned organized prayer in schools.
Child Centered Curriculum. 1960+
Personal relevant curriculum
- Reconstruct society for a liberated existence: Paulo Freire rejected the present Banking Model of Education and called for more relevant curriculum in Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970). and continued to speak for change until his last book, Pedagogy of freedom: ethics, democracy, and civic courage (1998).
- Whole language
- Open education and open schools
- Elective movement to provide personal relevance through choice in classrooms with learning centers, multiple activities, mini-lessons, multiple electives, different tracks to graduation.
See also Progressive Education
While Piaget's work predates 1960 the arrival of his ideas to America were most influential after 1960 along with Inhelder. Ideas related to Piaget and Inhelder for child and adolescent development.
The Woods Hole Conference was held, as a response to the Soviet Union's launch of the Sputnik series of satellites, to identify the problems of science education and to recommend solutions.
American educators who feared the Soviet Union had passed the United States in science, math, and foreign language achievement. Met to discuss and consider what might be done. Their conclusions was to bring together distinguished people from different fields to plan and suggest general ways to improve education. Their suggestions centered on subject matter as discipline-based, and identified instruction as an important factor that must be consider to improve student achievement by calling for a need of conceptual learning.
National Defense Education Act - Millions of dollars are provided to expand math, science, foreign language, and guidance programs.
Iowa tests introduce computerized scoring and reports to schools.
Sputnik launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 and American education is questioned.
Many educators called for teachers and curriculum to include more subject matter knowledge and information. At first, instructional methods were not mentioned. However, in a few years instructional issues were being considered along with curriculum as necessary for student success. See 1959 Woods Hole Conference.
Benjamin Bloom, Handbook I: Cognitive (1956).
Krathwohl, Bloom & Masia Handbook II: Affective (1965)
Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka.
A class action lawsuit was filed on behalf of black parents in Topeka, Kansas whose children were required to attend segregated schools for black students. Their attorney, Thurgood Marshall, challenged the doctrine of, separate but equal, created in 1896 by the Supreme Court ruling in Plessy vs. Ferguson.
The equal protection ruling in Brown was later applied to laws and rulings for the right of equal access to public and political areas for all.
The Supreme Court ruling on May 17, 1954 included:
- Where a State has undertaken to provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.
- Segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race deprives children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal.
- The "separate but equal" doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, has no place in the field of public education.
Life Adjustment Curriculum.
Life Adjustment Education for Every Youth . published by U.S. Office of Education 1951. A national conference on life adjustment in Washington D.C. in 1951, and workshops, conferences, and state sponsored committees between 1951 and 1953 involved hundreds of thousands of teachers and administrators. Source
Was meant to provide a better match to the needs of most students to adjust to adulthood and work. Believed to be about 60%, who did not benefit from college prep or vocational ed. It was characterized by:
- Life skills: hygiene, family living, drivers’ ed, and social relations with peers
- Basic skills
- Curriculum that is more meaningful and relevant., that allows students to develop at different rates, that is related to student's ability, and had more general and specialized outcomes.
- Career and vocational education
- Emphasized the dignity of work
- Emphasized moral living
For example history became social science, integrated with geography, civics, political science, economics, anthropology, archeology, sociology, and psychology, in units of study of a state, city, or community to make it more dynamic and responsive by including areas of living to meet the needs of the child and adolescent for a social world. Prepare them for group living, family life, to create a home, live healthy, engage in civic and community life, enjoy and protect life. Social studies teachers coordinated their efforts with guidance counselors, who administered personality and ability tests to students to help them make decisions about careers and vocations.
History came to be seen as shallow, chronological, outdated, irrelevant, unnecessary, and impractical. Resulting in students not learning disciplined reasoning about the past to understand how it lead to the present and enables the future. Lost and replaced with an anti-intellectual view that history is bunk resulting in a complacent middle class unaware of their manipulation and ignorant in how to facilitate change.
Thomas D. Fallace believes the responsibility for the mind numbing aspects of the history curriculum after World War II is not John Dewey or the Committee on Social Studies in 1916, but the national and local curriculum writers who added Life Adjustment Education into curriculum. Source
This Bill combined with previous bills starting with the Morrill Act in 1863 opened higher education to larger numbers of people. Making the United States a leader in the numbers of people going into higher education.
West Va. v. Barnette the school board required all teachers and pupils to honor the Flag. If they refused to salute they were expelled and charged with delinquency. The US. Supreme Court ruled (6-3) a school could not force students to stand and say the Pledge of Allegiance and could not penalize them for not doing so. Justice Jackson argued,
"If there is any fixed star in our constitutional constellation, it is that no official, high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, religion, or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act their faith therein."
Eight-Year Study. 1942.
Conducted by Euros, Raths, Taba, Alberty, Traxler, French, Corey, Ryan, Mackenzie, Harap, and Tyler the study validated the progressive education movement ideas.
The researchers also found that secondary schools in the Eight-Year Study were stimulated to develop new programs which were better for young people, for their success in college, for success in life, and for the future of society. Source
The study included the following ideas for improved instruction.
- Subjects to cut across subject-matter lines
- Frequently use cooperative planning and teaching
- Explore a wide range of relationships
- Provide experiences valid for large groups
- Include subject matter which does not require extended drill in specific skills (such as the operations)
- Use larger blocks of time than a single period
- Used a wide range of source material techniques for gathering information and class room activities. Source
Unfortunately the release of the five volume report was over shadowed by events leading to WW II and the war itself.
See 1919 Progressive Education Association for other characteristics
Ralph Tyler in 1949 claimed curriculum design should include four steps: selecting objectives, determining learning experiences, organizing activities, and planning for evaluation. Curriculum documents followed this procedure and resulted in documents with:
- Observable behaviors and attitudes,
- Lists of suggested learning activities, and
- Suggestions to evaluate student achievement of the desired attitudes and behaviors.
- Organized content in units based on current interdisciplinary problems instead of as academic disciplines in chronological order.
GED (General Education Development). 1942
In November 1942, the United States Armed Forces Institute asked the American Council on Education (ACE) to develop a battery of tests to measure high school-level academic skills so military personnel and veterans might demonstrate their knowledge to get civilian jobs and enroll in post-secondary colleges and universities. The University of Iowa was contracted to create the test and the test that was created was used until 1978. Since then several revisions have taken place with the latest in 2014 being an electronic version, the Pearson Vue.
Future Teachers of America was founded by Joy Elmer Morgan who was born in Callaway, Nebraska and graduated from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. He became the first executive secretary of the National Teachers Association (NEA) in 1917, was director when NEA had its first Representative Assembly in 1920 and moved its headquarters to Washington D.C. Where it still is today.
Source: The Voice March 2017
First automated test scanner IBM 805 was developed and used into the early 2000's.
Iowa tests are made available outside Iowa.
Skinner build on Thorndike's ideas that teaching could be reduced to highly controllable methods and explored systematic planning strategies for teaching and learning, teaching as a science, effective instruction, and teaching as a technocrat.
Behaviorism, behavioral psychology, and behavior modification as a philosophy or psychology explains people's actions as a result of their interactions with their environment (stimulus) and the type of reinforcement received as a result of their actions or behaviors (response). Direct instruction, Mastery learning, and educational technology have strong behavioral roots.
It assumes all people have potential and can change their behavior. A teacher could use a behavioral theory with a focus on student behavior. Identify specific objectives that describe targeted behaviors, use action verbs to describe tasks students can do to demonstrate attainment of objectives, sequence learning tasks, decide on types of reinforcements, systematic implementation and timing of feedback and correction, praise, reward, and punishment to shape small incremental improvements toward the target behavior.
In its early years it ruled out consideration of mental activity as not being observable and hence unscientific. Over the years it evolved to being described as a branch of psychology that focuses on the study and alteration of people's behaviors, including their actions, emotions and thoughts.
A focus on behavior is not necessarily behaviorist.
Harvard adopted the SAT to select scholarship recipients. Decades of research would demonstrate its negative bias against minorities.
James Bryant Conant
Became the President of Harvard University with a reform agenda in 1944. While president Harvard abolished; class rankings, Latin requirements, and athletic scholarships. Harvard began the use of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), co-educational classes, and admitted women to Harvard Medical School and Harvard Law School for the first time.
The Great Depression created many families who didn't have the means to provide for their own needs and became dependent on state and federal government for assistance. Education relied on property taxes, which decreased as businesses failed and land values fell. Chicago in 1934 borrowed $22 million so it could pay teacher salaries owed for three years of work.
University of Iowa begins the first statewide testing program for high school students under the guidance of E.F. Lindquist.
Report - The Problem of Indian Administration - calls for restructure of Native-American education.
The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) first administered.
The SAT is given to 8 000 students, 40% female. It lasted 90 minutes and had 315 questions to assess vocabulary and basic mathematics. It was used to determine if students were qualified for college. It was used to limit admission academically weak applicants as well as undesirable ethnicities.
See also first multiple choice test, 1915.
U.S. Supreme court upholds parent's right to opt out of Public School Education
Pierce, Governor of Oregon v. Society of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary.
Citizens of Oregon who were concerned about the influence of immigrants and their foreign values sought to insure a common American culture for all children by passing laws to require students attend public schools.
Challenges include: parent's choice on how to educate their children and economic issues based on contracts and due process.
The U.S. Supreme court ruled on choice, that forcing students to accept instruction only from public schools infringed on the child's parents or guardian's liberty, protected by the Fourteenth Amendment, to decide how their children are educated. It ruled the state usurped it's right to educate children by making unreasonable demands and over reaching on viable state interests.
R. Scott Appleby in the American Journal of Education claims this led to a remarkably liberal education policy wherein religious schools are not subjected to state accreditation, but only to minimal state health and safety laws.
One might think, as Justice Anthony Kennedy suggested, it could have been decided based on First Amendment. However, the First Amendment was not deemed applicable against the states until a few days later.
On the economic issue that schools' contracts with parents constitute property protection by the Fourteenth Amendment, the court ruled schools were corporations, but they were not technically entitled to such protections. However, it concluded the passage of the Act was not proper power and was unlawful interference of the freedom of schools and families attempting to prevent rather than to rectify a problem. Relating the case to due process.
Source Pierce v. Society of Sisters
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, The Snyder Act
The U.S. Congress passed the The Indian Citizenship Act, which provided citizenship for all Indians.
Meyer v. Nebraska. 1923.
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled the Nebraska Simon Act, which included,
"No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school, teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language."
Found to violated the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Highlights from the opinion:
- Liberty protected by the Due Process ... denotes not merely freedom from bodily restraint but also the right of the individual to contract, to engage in any of the common occupations of life, to acquire useful knowledge, to marry, establish a home and bring up children, to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and generally to enjoy those privileges long recognized at common law as essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men.
- Practically, education of the young is only possible in schools conducted by especially qualified persons who devote themselves thereto. The calling always has been regarded as useful and honorable, essential, indeed, to the public welfare. Mere knowledge of the German language cannot reasonably be regarded as harmful. Heretofore it has been commonly looked upon as helpful and desirable.
- [The] Plaintiff ... taught this language in school as part of his occupation. His right thus to teach and the right of parents to engage him so to instruct their children, we think, are within the liberty of the amendment.
- ... the Legislature has attempted materially to interfere with the calling of modern language teachers, with the opportunities of pupils to acquire knowledge, and with the power of parents to control the education of their own.
- ... the state may do much, go very far, indeed, in order to improve the quality of its citizens, physically, mentally and morally, is clear; but the individual has certain fundamental rights which must be respected. The protection of the Constitution extends to all, to those who speak other languages as well as to those born with English on the tongue. Perhaps it would be highly advantageous if all had ready understanding of our ordinary speech, but this cannot be coerced by methods which conflict with the Constitution—a desirable end cannot be promoted by prohibited means.
- Wartime circumstances might justify a different understanding, but that Nebraska had not demonstrated sufficient need "in time of peace and domestic tranquility" to justify "the consequent infringement of rights long freely enjoyed.
Source Meyer v. Nebraska
Equal Rights Amendment. 1923.
Alice Paul, and other suffragists, argued the nineteenth amendments alone would not end discrimination based upon sex. Paul drafted the Equal Rights Amendment and, in 1923, presented it as the "Lucretia Mott Amendment" at the 75th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention and the Declaration of Sentiments.
Later that same year it was introduced in the Congress. It has always been controversial regarding the meaning of equality for women. Spokesmen for the working class were strongly opposed, arguing employed women needed special protections regarding working conditions and hours. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and was submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. It seemed headed for quick approval until Phyllis Scholarly mobilized women in opposition, arguing it would disadvantage housewives. Congress had set a ratification deadline of March 22, 1979. By 1977, the amendment had 35 of the necessary 38 states needed for ratification. Five states later rescinded their ratifications before the 1979 deadline. In 1978, a joint resolution of Congress extended the ratification deadline to June 30, 1982, but no further states ratified the amendment and it died.
John Dewey comments on the regrets of the increased reliance on standardized testing:
Our mechanical industrial civilization is concerned with averages, with percents. The mental habit which reflects this social scene subordinates education and social arrangements based on average gross inferiorities and superiorities.
1921 first Ed. D. degree in education
Higher education degrees was another step towards Education becoming a profession.
The first Doctor of Education (Ed. D.) degree was granted by Harvard University in 1921. Henry Holmes, the first dean to train school leaders wanted an emphasis on instruction and administrative. Lawrence Lowell, Harvard president wanted the college to be a research institution and therefore, pressured Holmes to include research and statistic courses and completion of a dissertation.
However, the first Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in education was granted by Columbia University Teachers College in 1893 and they added an Ed. D. degree in 1934.
The lack of a distinction between the two has devalued both even though studies suggest there is little distinction across universities between the two.
Granted women throughout the United States the unabridged right to vote.
The association advocated instructional ideas such as the following.
- Focus on the learner's natural interests.
- The learner's developmental levels and needs must be considered.
- Learning is facilitated by the students active construct of their own knowledge.
- Learning is social and central to learning.
- The scientific method is the primary tool for learning.
- Learning is motivated by direct experience.
- Learners are be empowered with choice.
- Learning is cooperative with school, home, and community.
- Schools are laboratories for learning.
- Individual development is the primary goal of education.
Members included John Dewey, William Kirkpatrick, George Counts, and Boyd H. Bode.
Progressive educational theory and philosophy is associated with Plato who saw mental development as the interaction of child with the environment, John Dewey, and later Jean Piaget where the child is an explorer, scientist, inquiring in the world to construct and organize his or her own development.
Summary of change
In 1918 Mississippi was the last state to make education compulsory for all. This not only made school attendance mandatory, but in time lead to an ever increasing role for state government in education. A role for setting and enforcing rules to regulate schools, teachers, administrators, curriculum, and assessment.
These state regulations along with the increasing numbers of educators who graduated with four year degrees from land grant colleges, normal schools, and Universities such as Chicago and Columbia; the increase in literature relating to education by authors such as John Dewey; and teacher organizations (National Teachers Organization (NEA) and American Federation of Teachers (AFT)) along with a desire for higher wages began to lead to the professionalization of teachers.
Unions, where there are labor and trade disputes groups of people will join together for the betterment of their cause. These groups were historically small and most likely local. History of labor in the United States start with the social studies help center.
The industrial revolution and larger populations of the 1880's gave rise to labor organizations like, The Knights of Labor in the late 1880s, but due to its leadership and poor organization it was unable to survive strong opposition from employers and government officials.
In 1886 The American Federation of Labor was founded and led by Samuel Gompers was much more successful. It started as a loose coalition of local unions that began to coordinate and support strikes. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected and in 1933 passed the National Industrial Recovery Act, which declared:
...employees shall have the right to organize and bargain collectively through representation of their own choosing, and shall be free from the interference, restraint, or coercion of employers. the right to organize into unions.
The National Industrial Recovery Act was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1935.
It was replaced with the Wagner Act in 1935. The Wagner Act, legally protected the right of employees to organize in unions.
The Taft-Hartley Act amended the Wagner Act in 1947 to prohibit unfair labor practices of unions. In 1959 the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, added further restrictions for organized labor.
Mississippi the last state to pass compulsory education laws.
Members were mostly from secondary schools.
Summarized the role of education in a democracy as:
- Should be guided by a clear understanding of the meaning of democracy,
- Stated a democracy should organize society so each citizen may develop their personality through activities designed for the well being of their fellow members and society as a whole.
- Education in a democracy in and out of school should develop in each person the knowledge, interests, ideals, habits, and powers to find their place and use that place to shape them self and society toward noble ends.
- command of fundamental processes,
- worthy home membership,
- worthy use of leisure, and
- ethical character.
Critics lament the deminishment of the value of scholarship, intellectual thinking, individualism, academic relevance, reduction of the depth and breadth of learning attributed to these recommendations, and its contribution to the vast numbers of stupid and uninformed as a result of this commission's recommendations. Source
Established to fund money to train people who have entered or might enter agriculture related work. It is the basis for both the promotion of vocational education and the creation of a separate curriculum path. It is an expansion of the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 and the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1859 - 1862. See later G.I. Bill 1944.
Charles Allen Prosser's, Report of the National Commission on Aid to Vocational Education, was instrumental in the passing of the act. Woodlawn High School in Woodlawn, Virginia was the first public secondary school in the United States to offer agricultural education classes under this act.
These acts assumed teaching was a profession capable of achieving the desired specified results.
U.S. Army IQ test
Arthur Otis (student of Lewis Terman) and others developed a group multiple choice intelligence tests for the U.S. Army in 1917. Two version: 1. Army Alpha (for literates) and 2. Army Beta (for illiterates). Otis created it to be cheaper and take less time to administer than Alfred Binet's individually administered intelligence test.
1.7 million WW I recruits took the Army Alpha with results published in 1921.
American Federation of Teachers
Founded to seek better wages and benefits for teachers.
Fredrick Kelly created the Kansas Silent Reading Test. A timed reading test that could be given to groups of students at the same time, required little or no writing, was easily scored, and claimed to be objective.
Established the cooperative extension services to educate citizens on recent information and methods in agriculture, home economics, public policy, government, 4-H, economic development, coastal issues, and many other related subjects. The delivery of was placed with land-grant universities. See also the Smith-Hughs Vocational Education Act 1917.
Ford English School was created by Henry Ford to teach basic heading and speaking comprehension skills. Mostly foreign born factory workers attended.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded
W. E. B. Du Bois was a co-founder of NAACP
William Edward Burghardt (W. E. B.) Du Bois graduated from Harvard and was the first African American to earn a doctorate. He rose to national prominence when he was the leader of the Niagara Movement. A group of African-Americans who insisted on full equal civil rights and political representation for blacks. He and his supporters were opposed to the Atlanta compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities, see 1881.
Carnegie unit was defined to set a standard to consider if students were prepared for college.
Henry Prichett was president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The foundation emphasized the role of school as teaching content and recommended a definition of a unit as a course of five periods weekly through out an academic year with a period being about 55 minutes long. The trustees recommended that colleges require the completion of 14 units before admission.
Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute was founded by Mary McLeod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune was an American educator who founded this private school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida, which is now Bethune-Cookman University.
Native Americans and education
The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School is a first person narrative of the early education of Francis La Flesche (1857–1932) and four close classmates. 262 pages.
Born on the Omaha Reservation in northeast Nebraska he attended the Presbyterian Mission School for Indian children. The school was first located in Bellevue, Nebraska in 1845, then moved to the reservation in northeast Nebraska in 1857. The book is a series of stories that together document the abuse Indian children suffered in a reeducation curriculum and the antics of five boys as they unite to survive and grab fleeting moments of control when opportunities are presented. Learning how to survive being away from family during the school week or longer. Being told their culture is for heathens and savages and best forgotten. Being required to only speak English and forbidden to speak their Omaha language, even the young children that knew no English, were punished when they spoke Omaha. Having their hair cut, native clothes taken away, sleeping in a dormitory three to a bed... Learning arithmetic, geography, history, and language to the fifth level reader. Stories of being orally quizzed to show off for visitors. Participating in a spelling bee when a visitor requested it so he might present the winner the new spelling book used to give the words for the bee. Story of making sleds that were later stolen by Ponca boys, who they chased down so they might recover their sleds after a good fight. Mental math and problems related to their sled making, and much more. A moving story for those who seek to envision the difficulty in walking among two cultures and becoming educated with some of the best from both to not only survive, but prosper on their own terms.
Later he attended George Washington University Law School in Washington, DC and earned undergraduate and master's degrees. He was the first Native American anthropologist. Worked with the Smithsonian Institution, documented his Omaha and Osage culture. Worked as a translator and researcher with anthropologist Alice C. Fletcher. Made valuable original recordings of Native American songs and chants. Collaborated with composer Charles Wakefield Cadman to write the opera, Da O Ma starting in 1908 until it was performed in 1912. It is an opera based on his stories of Omaha life. Source
His sister, Susette (Bright Eyes) La Flesche also attended the Mission school and was an interpreter for chief Standing Bear when he was on trial. Standing Bear v. George Crook See 1879. And when he was an expert witness on Indian issues and during his lecture tour of the eastern United States, 1879-1880. She was accompanied by her brother Francis who shared translation duties. Source She was also a journalist for the Omaha, NE World-Herald and The Independent newspaper in Lincoln, NE.
His half sister, Suzanne LaFlesche Picotte (1865–1915) also began her education at the Presbyterian Mission School. Then she attended the Elizabeth Institute for Young Ladies in Elizabeth, NJ and later the Hampton Institute in Virginia. After that Alice Fletcher, whom Susan cared for during an illness, and Dr. Martha M. Waldron, a physician at the Institute, who helped her become the first person to receive federal aid for professional education by getting funds from the U.S. Office of Indian Affairs to attend the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. She graduated in 1889 at the top of her class and become the first female Native American physician (Omaha). She practiced medicine in Bancroft, NE and its surrounding communities. She also advocated for public health, Native American issues, and the legal allocation of land for members of the Omaha tribe. Source
College Entrance Examination Board is established.
1898 - The idea that teaching could be reduced to highly controllable methods.
See Skinner 1934.
First lab school
John Dewey (1859-1952) as a Professor at the University of Chicago found the first lab school to test progressive education techniques (1896).
- 1897 My Pedagogic Creed
- 1899, 1900 The School and Society lectures
- 1902 The Child and the Curriculum
- 1916 Democracy and Education: an introduction to the philosophy of education
- 1938 Experience and Education
The Atlanta Compromise
In 1895 Booker T. Washington gave his Atlanta compromise speech in Atlanta that enabled him to rise to national prominence with support of the rich white upper class. The speech introduced his belief that blacks should be patient, accept a working class existence, and avoid confrontation over Jim Crow segregation. He said blacks should make progress through self-help, education, and entrepreneurship. He mobilized a national coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, white philanthropists and politicians around his ideology that blacks should be educated as a working class, which he instituted at Tuskegee University, and not seek equality with whites.
W. E. B. Du Bois, at first supported the Atlanta compromise but after the founding of the NAACP in 1909 he challenged Booker T. Washington with a more militant style of leadership in the black community. It was years after B. T. Washington's death that the Civil Rights movement and the NAACP took a different stance.
National Education Association's Committee of Ten
Chair Charles W. Eliot
Affirmed the purpose of high school was to emphasize mental discipline through language, humanities, and science.
- The report included answers to a set of eleven questions
- Outlined curricular knowledge for 1. Latin; 2. English; 3. Greek; 4. other modern languages; 5. mathematics; and 6. physics, astronomy, and chemistry; 7. Natural history (biology, botany, zoology, and physiology), 8. history, civil government, and political economy; 9. Geography (physical geography, geology, astronomy)
- Recommended 12 years of education, 8 - elementary education and 4 - high school.
- Address tracking, or course differentiation based upon postsecondary pursuit and unanimously stated every subject should be taught in the same way and to the same extent to every pupil no matter what.
- Claimed it [standardization] would promote equality in instruction.
- Claimed this [standardization] would also simplify school instruction and training of new teachers
- Identified a need for more highly qualified educators.
- Proposed universities enhance training by offering subject-education courses, and lowering tuition.
- Pay for classroom teachers and superintendents, principals or other leading teachers to show other teachers how to [teach] better.
Minority report focused on considerations for deviation of the recommendations by local schools
Ellen G. White - Christian education and Seventh Day Adventist Church. She first wrote on education in some essays on education in 1872. Later she wrote detailed descriptions for a Christian educational system 1893, 1894 and 1903. Her writings include:
- Education is God's glorious purpose of the human race
- Christian Education is essential for a healthy society
- Most important factor in education is the parents
- Parents early interactions with their child is critical
- Teachers should teach with self control, patience, forbearance, gentleness and love.
- School should be a sanctuary
- Education is necessary for the whole body, mind, and spirit.
- One needs to learn
- Learn to care for them self and the living environment
- Respectful for self, others, & cultures
- Education needs to be place based
- Education should be practical
- Every one needs job skills
- Healthy living
- Good vegetarian diet,
- Community living,
- Community service
- Science should teach how God works
Source Blueprint for Learning.
The Committee on Secondary School Studies
by NEA (National Education Association)
The average length of a school term was 135 days with the average attendance per student being 86.
High school was very similar to college curriculum.
Desired to provide a more standard curriculum to benefit students and provide a common academic background in preparation for university. They made specific recommendations about subjects taught: Latin, Greek, English, modern languages, mathematics, science, history, and geography. Left vocational education as an option, but desired subjects to be taught in the same manner and extent to every pupil no matter their intended educational goals. While they claimed that secondary schools do not wholly exist for the purpose of preparing boys and girls for college, but to prepare them fro the duties of life. However, since preparation of students for college is so important for the well fair of the nation it is important that the small numbers who can achieve a college education and whose parents are able to support them should be the incidental and not principle object. Became or stayed the goal and rationalized with the idea that the best preparation for college was also the best preparation for life.
So the major objection of favoring utility over classical traditions was chipped away at while the idea secondary education was too focused on college admission and not focused enough on preparation for life was largely agreed to still be focused on higher ed.
Maria Montessori - (1870-1952) Italy
Montessori teaching method, is a child centered approach that allows students to independently explore what interests them as they are encouraged to freely interact with a real world kind of environment provided by the teacher, which provides order and sets limits. Students begin their learning by playing, which provide opportunities to develop socially and intellectually beginning with real world concrete experiences. They learn to become independent, take initiative, critical thinkers, and self-confidence.
College entrance exam
Harvard President Charles William Eliot proposed a common entrance exam be used by all colleges and professional schools in the U.S.
Adolf Kussamaul , German physician
Used the word: dyslexia to describe a very great difficulty in interpreting written or printed symbols.
Tuskegee University was a dream of Lewis Adams. When W. F. Foster, approached Adams and asked him what he wanted to help turn out the African-American vote in Macon County for his re-election to the Alabama Senate. Adams said he wanted an educational institution for his people. After he was elected he got the legistlature to appropriate $2,000 for teachers’ salaries and formed a board of commissioners to get the school organized. Members included: Lewis Adams, Thomas Dryer, and M. B. Swanson. George W. Campbell became the second commisioner and he selected Booker T. Washington from Hampton Institute as their first teacher. Source
See 1895 The Atlanta Compromise.
Standing Bear v. George Crook, Native Americans were ruled persons
Presiding Judge Elmer Dundy of the US District Court in Omaha, NE,
Standing Bear and other Ponca Indians were living; on their reservation in Niobrara, NE. Farming and sending their children to school before they were removed and taken south to where crops would not grow and 158 people died before a small group decided to return to their Niobrara reservation. They left and headed north until they were captured on the Omaha reservation and brought to Omaha where a writ of habeas corpus was filed.
The case was became centered on: do Indians have a legal right to a writ of habeas corpus (a court order, that literally meaning to produce the body, or a court order to bring a person into the court room to decide if the person has been detained, jailed, or imprisoned legally). Standing Bear's attorneys argued the government had no justification to arrest and detain them. They claimed the law was clear. It said nothing about being a citizen. It said only that: any person or party had a legal right to apply for a writ.
The government's attorney argued the court overstepped its legal boundaries and had no legal right to compel the government to justify its arrest and relocation of the Indians south, because an Indian has no legal right to sue in federal court. Further no writ has ever been issued for an Indian and can not be.
Dundy ruled: It was illogical to assume since no Indian ever sought a writ of habeas corpus, that Standing Bear could not seek one. The court had jurisdiction, because Standing Bear and the Ponca had been restrained of their liberty in violation of a treaty provision and only the federal court can determine if the prisoners’ constitutional rights were violated.
He wrote: "It would be a sad commentary on the justice and impartiality of our laws, to hold that Indians, though natives of our own country, cannot test the validity of an alleged illegal imprisonment.”
As to who could legally apply for a writ. The government steadfastly argued only citizens could. And since Indians were not citizens, they could not sue. However, Dundy ruled person not citizen was the required criteria and wrote: a reasonable definition of a person can be found by consulting a dictionary. “Webster describes a person as ‘a living soul; a self conscious being; a moral agent; especially a living human being; a man, woman or child; an individual of the human race.’” This, he said, “is comprehensive enough, it would seem, to include even an Indian."
The judge noted, Standing Bear and the Ponca had done all they could to terminate their tribal allegiance (expatriate) and become independent farmers, provide education for their children, and adopt the ways of civilization.
Dundy noted that on July 27, 1868, Congress declared the right of expatriation (to withdraw oneself from residence of one's native country) was a natural and inherent right of all people, indisputable to the enjoyment of the rights of life, liberty , and the pursuit of happiness.
Leading Dundy to the decision: An Indian “possesses the clear and God-given right to withdraw from his tribe and forever live away from it, as though it had no further existence.”
Finally, did the government have a legal right to remove Standing Bear and the Ponca from the Omaha Reservation and send them back to the southern Indian Territory?
Dundy wrote, no such power exists. The government can not arbitrarily round up Indians who had severed their tribal ties and simply move them whenever and wherever it wanted. Unless, they were deemed detrimental to the peace and welfare of the reservation. But in such cases, the law required they must be turned over to civilian – not military – authorities.
In summary, Judge Dundy concluded,
- An Indian is a PERSON within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and has therefore the right to sue out a writ of habeas corpus in a federal court.
- General Crook illegally detained the Ponca prisoners.
- The military has no legal authority to force removal of the Ponca to Indian Territory.
- Indians possess the inherent right of expatriation as well as the more fortunate white race, and have the inalienable right to ‘life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness....’”
- And, since they have been illegally detained in violation of their constitutional rights, the Ponca “must be discharged from custody.
Judge Dundy had done something unprecedented: He granted the hearing and declared, for the first time in the nation’s history, an Indian was a person within the meaning of U.S. law with legal rights whites were required to uphold. Unfortunately, Judge Dundy did not address the issue of citizenship for Indians. It would not be until 1924 when Congress passed the Citizenship Act, which provided citizenship for all Indians. Source
Adolf Kussamaul, German neurologist
Used the phrase, word blindness, to describe a person with complete text blindness in spite of being sighted, having intellect, and the powers of speech intact.
1875 First official college football game was played in New Jersey: Rutgers vs Princeton
Susan Blow traveled to Germany where she observed classrooms inspired by the work of Friedrich Froebel. She watched young children learn language, math, and science through play. She returned to America and worked to provide this kind of education to young children.
She opened the first kindergarten in September 1873 at Des Peres School in Carondelet within the Saint Louis School District.
Her kindergarten classroom was bright and cheerful with tables and benches and many plants, books, toys, balls, blocks, and other simple objects for children to use to play and learn about colors, shapes, language, numbers, and health issues about keeping clean, eating well, and getting regular exercise.
Margarethe Schurz, opened a kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856.
Elizabeth Peabody, opened one in Boston in 1873.
The National Education Association, supported kindergarten in 1872, and established a department of kindergarten instruction in 1884. Source
1870 Christmas was declared a federal holiday
1869 Transcontinental railroad was opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869 with a ceremonial driving of the last spike. The spike, referred to as the golden spike, was driven with a silver hammer, at Promontory Summit, Utah.
Nebraska State Education Association (NSEA) was founded in Brownsville, Nebraska on October 16, 1867. It is the oldest professional organization in Nebraska. At the time less than 40% of school aged children attended school.
1863 November 19
In Lincoln's words, the power of the address is about what the civil war preserved...
"One nation over state's rights to go their own way. A unity of national majority rule. "... that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
The Morrill Land Grant Act passed by Congress in 1859 allocated land to states based on the number of senators and representatives each state had in Congress to fund agricultural schools similar to Michigan State University at the time. However, it was vetoed by President James Buchanan.
In 1861, it was amended to include teaching of military tactics as well as engineering and agriculture. This change, and the fact that some states that did not support it were now in the Confederacy, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862. See later acts, The Smith–Lever Act of 1914 , Smith-Hughes Act 1917, and later G.I. Bill 1944.
First black teacher and school in Virginia
Mary Peake & Hampton Normal School
With the Union Army in control of Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia, Union Major General Benjamin Butler decreed any enslaved people who cross into Union lines were contraband of war and would not be returned. This brought many enslaved people to the first self-contained African American community.
Mary Peake, a free Negro, was asked to teach the refugees, even though an 1831 Virginia law forbid the education of slaves, free blacks and mulattoes. She taught her first class, on September 17, 1861 under an oak tree that would later be the site of the first Southern reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.
The Emancipation Oak still stands and is on the grounds of Hampton University.
Mary Peake's class evolved to became the Butler School for Negro children, where students were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and grammar, as well as various housekeeping skills. Then in 1868 The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, which today is Hampton University, was opened next to the Butler School.
The Butler School, was succeeded in 1889 by the Whittier School, which was a lab-school or teaching school for the Hampton Normal School.
Source and additional information about the history of Hampton University
National Education Association
NEA was founded to professionalize teaching.
See also 1937 Future Teachers of America
Massachusetts became the first state legislature to pass a law banning segregated schools.
The Ashmun Institute received its charter from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on April 29, 1854. It was the nation's first degree-granting Historically Black College and University (HBCU). Located in southern Chester County in Pennsylvania. In 1866 it was renamed Lincoln University in honor of President Abraham Lincoln. The history of Lincoln University dates even earlier to 1794 when John Miller Dickey, and his wife, Sarah Emlen Cresson contributed to the education of African-Americans in Philadelphia. Source
Compulsory education state law
In 1852 Massachusetts was the first state to pass a law for compulsory education. It required every town to create and operate a grammar school. It also allowed fines to be levied on parents who did not send their children to school and if they did not comply, they could be found unfit to properly educate their children, and their children could be taken and apprenticed.
Compulsory education laws were passed in other states until the last state, Mississippi, did in 1918.
Massachusetts had originally enacted the first compulsory education law in the American colonies in 1647.
Summary of change
While education during this time was seen as the responsibility of the family more people looked to government assistance to organize and provide for schooling as more people began to believe a majority of citizens was necessary to maintain a democracy rather than a minority of elite to govern. Thus, education became seen as an important way to establish a capable citizenry to maintain a democracy. A citizenry composed of people beyond the sons of the elite affluent families or a few who were lucky and gifted enough to rise to the top. As to whether people understood majority as a simple majority or a majority more toward all with the inclusion of all diverse kinds of people was not fully defined and would lead to controversies in years to come.
Therefore, Early American Education was evolving with the influence of ideas brought to America and applied with an American flavor. Among them the exploration of universal education for larger numbers of children, education outside the home, increases in the percentage of girls and women being educated, funding of schools by cities and states, classical education, and larger class sizes.
Most schools still had a strong religious influence and high ethical standards.
Curriculum was narrowing in a sense to reading, writing, and arithmetic in the younger grades and in the secondary preparation for college and university. Trades and agriculture were kept outside the curriculum and were learned from family members, apprenticeships, or on the job training of sorts.
Colleges and universities began to increase in number and began to alter their European medieval curriculum in ways to make it more American.
Curriculum included traditional content in subjects or topics. Texts used for instruction were increasingly being written in English as opposed to Latin and Greek. The decline of of Latin was also apparent in the classroom with less use of Latin required and all requirements for knowing Greek were removed, except for students who were preparing for the ministry.
Other changes were the continual addition of time in school and the addition of courses that were traditional, such as those in natural science, trade, commerce, agriculture, and merchandise.
From 1790 - 1800 the use of syllogistic disputations at most colleges was reduced and the use of forensic debate increased.
Compulsory education state law
In 1852 Massachusetts was the first state to pass a law for compulsory education. It required every town to create and operate a grammar school. It also allowed fines to be levied on parents who did not send their children to school and if they did not comply, they could be found unfit to properly educate their children, and their children could be taken and apprenticed.
Compulsory education laws were passed in other states until the last state, Mississippi, did in 1918.
Massachusetts had originally enacted the first compulsory education law in the American colonies in 1647.
Roberts v. Boston - a case seeking to end racial discrimination in Boston public schools
Sarah Roberts, a five-year-old African-American girl was enrolled in an underfunded all-black school. She was denied admission at a nearer whites-only schools on the basis of her race, Her father wrote to the state legislature for a solution.
The solution first involved the Massachusetts's Supreme Court, where Robertsed ask for integration and lost.
Some African-Americans argued for integration and others argued fot separate but equal schools, because they questioned the education their children would receive from a white school, see Atlanta Compromise above.
- In 1855 the issue was brought to the Massachusetts state legislature which write and passed a law banning segregated schools. The first state law prohibiting segregated schools.
- Roberts appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court that ruled in favor of Boston, finding no constitutional basis for the suit.
- The Roberts v. Boston case was cited in both the Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1896, which ruled in favor of separate but equal; and in Brown v. Board of Board of Education decision in 1954, which ruled against separate but equal.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
First three declarations of Woman's Rights written at the convention held at Seneca Falls on July 19-20, 1848.
... "Resolved, That such laws as conflict, in any way, with the true and substantial happiness of woman, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and of no validity; for this is "superior in obligation to any other.
Resolved, That all laws which prevent woman from occupying such a station in society as her conscience shall dictate, or which place her in a position inferior to that of man, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and therefore of no force or authority.
Resolved, That woman is man's equal—was intended to be so by the Creator, and the highest good of the race demands that she should be recognized as such." ... Entire text ...
The Philadelphia Riots (Prayer Riots, Bible Riots and Native American Riots) were several riots between May 6 and 8 and July 6 and 7, 1844, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States and the adjacent districts of Kensington and Southwark. Thirteen people died, Catholic Irish churches were attacked and two burned to the ground.
A major issue was whose religious interest would be represented in school, not a separation of Church and State issue. The city was divided by anti Catholic and a Nativists anti immigrant sentiments. Use of a protestant Bible in public schools and derogatory religous and heritage wording in texts and by teachers. Source
Prussian / German influence
Prussia's defeat by Napoleon Bonaparte, 1806, motivated the government to implement sweeping educational reform. King Frederick William III designed a system to create citizens who would obey and submit without question. It was a three tier design with 1/2% of students taught how to manage: materials, men, and situations. the next tier, 5-8% of students, were prepared as politicians, doctors,lawyers, & engineers. The last tier, 92-94% of students, were to learn to be obedient, cooperative, and correct attitudes, along with literacy and the official state fabricated history. The purpose to make 95% of the citizens subservient to the ruling house and state. Source: Schools on Trial, Nikhil Goyal p. 43-44.
See 1873 kindergarten, 1837 Horace Mann
John Hughes, Bishop of New York, petitioned the New York public schools to provide funds to Catholic schools so they could offer religous training proper for their congretation. Religious instruction in public schools included basic prayers and passages from the Protestant, King James Bible without commentary or interpretation, which he deemed insufficient and inappropriate. After a three day debate, his petion was rejected. Legislation in 1842 declared no secterian religious instruction was to be offered.
The public response in 1843 was to elect a school board that ruled: reading the Bible in class was not - sectarian.
John Hughes created Catholic Schools for Catholic children to attend, which resulted in the expansion of the parochial school systems in the U.S.
The inclusion of Bible reading in public schools persisted across the U. S. until 1962 when the U. S. Supreme Court banned organized prayer in the schools. Source
First public Normal schools
A normal school trains high school graduates to be teachers by teaching standards or norms, hence its name. Most such schools are now called teachers' colleges. In the United States and Canada they trained teachers to teach in primary school. In Europe they educated teachers for primary, secondary, and post-secondary levels.
In 1839, a public Normal School was established in Lexington, Massachusetts. It operates today as Bridgewater State University.
In 1685, Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, founded the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, in Reims, France. The first normal school.
Horace Mann accepts the position as the first Secretary of Massachusetts School Board 1837.
Horace Mann ( 1796-1859) advocated for a free common school for all children paid with taxes from all citizens. Summary of his work, philosophy and policies:
"No one did more than he to establish in the minds of the American people the conception that education should be universal, non-sectarian, free, and that its aims should be social efficiency, civic virtue, and character, rather than mere learning or the advancement of sectarian ends." Public Education in the United States (1919) Ellwood P. Cubberley. p. 167.
Publicly funded schools were created controlled by local and state government with a narrow New England Puritan centric curriculum.
While Secretary of education the state of Massachusetts:
- Implemented state collection of education data;
- Established state approved school libraries in each district, who were assigned the responsibility for the adoption of textbooks.
- Established Normal Schools that regulated teacher preparation.
Horace Mann suggested the purpose of collecting educational data [assessment]
- To evaluate the effectiveness of educational systems and programs to provide feedback to students and teachers,
- To measure student achievement in a manner that would equitably describe student's level of knowledge and skill and classify students for various purpose: one being certification, and
- Reform to suggest how change and improve teaching and learning. Under his supervision Massachusetts was first to use standardized written examinations (1938). Source
Horace Mann was self educated by reading books he paid for by braiding straw. He Graduated Brown University. His valedictorian oration was The Gradual Advancement of the Human Species in Dignity and Happiness. He taught Latin and Greek at Brown, got a law degree, was elected to MA House, Senate, and then President of the Board of Education. The first in the United States.
Visited Germany and brought back ideas in 1843 that became the Prussian German Influence
African Institute, later renamed Cheyney University (1914), was founded with support from Richard Humphreys to help young African Americans get a skilled trade. It offered basics in reading, writing, math, mechanics, and agriculture. Richard hoped a domino effect would be created as students from his Institute would spread education among other young, blacks.
First Kindergarten. 1837.
In Germany Friedrich Froebel (1782 -1852) founded the first kindergarten. 1837. He believed children need to play and interact socially with other children to learn. Therefore, his writings and practices for kindergarten were thought to be outrageous bey the German community who burned his book (The Education of Man).
See Kindergarten in U.S. 1873.
Mc Guffy Readers. 1836.
William Holmes McGuffey used ideas and examples that were created and used in a reading series by Samuel Worcester in 1826 and published until 1832). In fact Worcester’s publishers sued McGuffey and his publisher for plagiarism and won. Samples
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Passed a law that towns of five hundred or more families shall maintain high schools with a ten month program.
University of Virginia is founded by Thomas Jefferson
First training school for teachers
The first training school for teachers, Concord Academy, in the United States was founded in Concord, Vermont, by Samuel Read Hall in 1823. His, Lectures on School Keeping, published in 1829, was the first American instructional book for teachers. He was also involved with teacher education at Phillips Academy’s, Holmes-Plymouth Academy, and Craftsbury Academy. He also established the American Institute of Instruction, the oldest educational organization in America.
See also 1839, first public Normal Schools
Pubic money for private schools
In 1823, New York City gave public money to religious organizations (Catholic, Presbyterian , Quakers, Jewish, Methodist, Lutheran, Episcopalian, and Baptist) to use for non religious educational purposes. The Free School claimed New York was the only city where religious schools received common funds and petitioned the Board of Alderman, “that our civil and religious rights are abridged and injuriously affected by the operation of the Common School System,” and payments should be stopped. The board agreed and stopped payments. Source
Federal funds were allocated for schools on Native American reservations.
Monitorial system, peer tutoring
The Monitorial System, mutual instruction, or the Bell-Lancaster method named after the British educators who independently developed it, Dr Andrew Bell and Joseph Lancaster. This method uses students as teaching assistants as the teacher or tutor, to teach other students. It is a way to increase class size and decrease the cost of instruction. Lancaster's motto: He who teaches, learns. It is criticized by taking the teaching assistants or tutor away from their own learning.
Dickinson College and Benjamin Rush on education.
Dickinson College was named after John Dickinson, governor of Pennsylvania and leader in the American Revolution. However, it was Benjamin Rush who envisioned it, wrote its charter, and worked to get it approved by the Pennsylvania legislature on September 9, 1783, six days after the signing of the Treaty of Paris. Making it the first college created in the new nation. Previously, it was a grammar school in Carlisle, PA founded in 1773. Source
Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) was a strong supporter of education, especially for women. He believed education was essential for the prosperity and independence of the nation. He supported free schools in every town with a hundred or more families, to teach reading, writing, arithmetic, republicanism, and character to unite the country. While Rush advocated for women to be educated his views did not rise to the level of gender equality. See more in Benjamin Rush and Women's Education: A Revolutionary's Disappointment, A Nation's Achievement by Jodi Campbell. See also Benjamin Rush's Views on Women's Education by Jean S. Straub.
First American spelling book by Noah Webster
Noah Webster paid to publish his first speller in 1783. It was the first of a three part series. A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. The second part was a grammar and the third a reader. His goal was to provide the country with a standard system of pronunciations. Criticized for the wording of the title he revised it and it was reprinted in 1787 with a new title, The American Spelling Book. Sold more than 15 million copies by 1837 while the U.S. population of 1840 was only 17 million.
Noah felt Americans needed their own history and Americanized language. He advocated to remove all English books and create an American history and language. Therefore, his spellers had this nationalist tone and many non English spellings. Later in 1806 Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, the first truly American dictionary. Today is the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Bill for public education
As part of his work in revising the laws of Virginia during the late 1770s and early 1780s, Thomas Jefferson put forth a bill that has become one of his most enduring works on the subject of education: Bill 79, "A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge."
When presenting this bill he claims to insure public happiness people who are endowed with genius and virtue must receive a liberal education, at the publics expense, so they may guard the sacred rights and liberties of their fellow citizens.
The Bill was presented in the Virginia House of Delegates in 1778 and 1780, but did not pass. James Madison presented the bill several more times while Jefferson was serving as Minister to France. In 1796 the Act to Establish Public Schools was passed.
Johann Friedrich Herbart - believed education should focus on moral character
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi - wrote How Gertrude Educates Her Children
Summary of change
Early periods of education is characterized by what each person, family, or parent felt was appropriate for them, their family, and children. They were free to determine how they and their children were educated within their particular economic situation. It would involve children modeling their parents or other adult or skilled person. Parents teaching their children and others within a household. Parents and families hiring others as nannys, tutors, private teachers, or contracting to teach them at home. Some would send their kids to private lesson, private schools, apprenticeships, into indentured servitude, and sold or forced into slavery.
Three famous Americans were apprentices: Ben Franklin printer. George Washington mason surveyor. Paul Revere silversmith.
As populations grew families began to collaborate and meet at churches, libraries, community centers, museums, informal day care centers or dame schools to provide basic literacy and numeracy skills in an affordable way. These were more like individual and small group lessons than school. Schooling experiences and advanced learning was very limited and thought necessary for only a few.
Schooling focused on reading with initial instruction beginning with a Hornbook, to teach letters. Hornbooks were first used in England as early as 1450. Much education was centered around religion and high ethical standards. There was no standard primary or secondary curriculum which resulted in a diversity of study related to agriculture, military, trades, scholar, and religious sects. Often a book or list of books was used as the curriculum, usually classical authors. Early Americans, Adams, Jefferson, and Franklin have lists of recommended books along with other recommendations for learning that can be found in writings they sent to their children and other acquaintances.
Colleges and universities began to appear and used a European medieval curriculum. Attendance was limited to white males who could afford to support the use of their time in study or those who were talented toward this type of learning, motivated to learn, and lucky enough to attain financial support privately and or in a few cases publicly.
Curriculum included content in subjects or topics such as: Latin and Greek composition, classical literature, rhetorical studies, logic, ethics, philosophy, criticism, classical readings followed by original orations and writings based on classical models, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, logarithms. Later sciences (chemistry, botany, astronomy), history, geography, natural and civil law, civil history, laws and government, politics, trade, commerce, agriculture, merchandise, and modern foreign languages were added to the curriculum.
Instructional methods included, reading, lecture, recitation, translation of text, syllogistic disputations and declamations. Disputation is an academic exercise in oral defense of a thesis by discussion or debate using formal logic. Sample Declamations are students interpretations of famous speeches they re-give to demonstrate their ability to understand and apply the purpose and power of the speech and skill in public speaking. Samples
Tutors were hired to teach one or a small number of students in several areas who would be tested by the college president or select members of the educational community to see if they were ready to be admitted, move from course to course or advance to the next year, and ready to graduate. Tutors were replaced with faculty who were assigned to teach specific subject areas. At Harvard the first appointment was in 1722 in religion with other subject areas added until 1766 when the tutorial system was abolished and professors and tutors were assigned subjects rather than classes of students to prepare in all areas.
The tutorial system of one person instructing one person or a small group of students in all areas was abolished at Harvard and professors and tutors were assigned subjects rather than classes.
John Morgan and William Shippen, Jr. founded the first medical school in North America
The Medical School of the College of Philadelphia.
The book is considered the first educational philosophy book as well as the first child psychology book. Thus, Rousseau is sometimes referred to as the father of modern child psychology.
Rousseau claims children have a natural goodness and can become critical life long learners and educated citizens if they can survive a corrupted society. From these ideas two philosophical learning theories or educational philosophies emerged.
Maturationist theory is based on the idea that learning comes from within the child. It can be thought of as genetically determined and naturally unfolding as a child grows. Rousseau and others would disagree over the amount of predetermined innate, inherited, genetic influence there was as opposed to the amount of environmental or external influence.
Romanticism theory is based on the idea the inner good will dominate over the inner bad. The child is like a plant that will grow according to the genetic information provided in the seed. A good environment to nourish it will maximize or retard its growth.
Anthony Benezet created the first public girls' school and first School for black children in Philadelphia
Anthony Benezet began teaching in 1739. In 1742, he moved to the Friends' English School of Philadelphia (now the William Penn Charter School) and in 1750 began teaching night classes there for black slaves.
In 1754, he left the Friends' English School and began the first public girls' school on the American continent. Students included Deborah Norris and Sally Wister.
In 1770, he founded the Negro School at Philadelphia for black children. Abigail Hopper Gibbons taught there.
He also founded the first anti-slavery society, the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage. After his death in 1784, Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Benjamin Rush reconstituted this association as the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery.
The College of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania)
The College of Philadelphia began college prep in 1751. It is believed to be the first curriculum that developed a curriculum that was not based on the traditional medieval curriculum and with out religious objectives.
In 1752 William Smith published A General Idea of the College of Mirania. F
He sent a copy to Franklin, who was impressed so in May 1754 Smith was appointed to teach logic, rhetoric, ethics, and natural philosophy at the College of Philadelphia.
In March 1755 he was made provost. While this curriculum had subjects similar to those of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton there was a different emphasis. A three year program of study with the first year of Latin and Greek composition; arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and logarithms; and classical and rhetorical studies. The second year included more mathematics, logic and ethics, and added natural philosophy and classical readings followed by original orations written using classical models. The third year included natural and civil law, civil history, laws and government, trade and commerce, and more natural philosophy. Emphasis was one-third classics, one-third mathematics and science, and one-third logic, ethics, metaphysics and oratory. The new emphasis continued with syllogistic disputations and declamations as an instructional method and for student assessment.
Benjamin Franklin helped open the The Philadelphia Academy and Charitable School or
The Academy and College of Philadelphia -
This may have been the first American academy. In 1749 Benjamin Franklin drew up the constitution and was appointed its first president. It opened as a secondary school on August 1751, was granted a charter in 1755, and graduated its first class, seven men, in May 1757.
It was a secondary school to prepare people for life or to enter business and other vocations. Students studied English, instead of Latin, the classics, modern language, and science. Secondary schools became popular, because they provided preparation for university cheaper than hiring tutors. Academies were sported by endowments, tuition, and in some cases state governments. Academies filled a need until compulsory public education became the norm. See 1852.
1749 - Benjamin Franklin wrote a pamphlet titled: Proposals Related to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania in it he offers hints of a Plan for the Education of the Youth of Pennsylvania. The above link has facsimile of the original and electronic full text. This document describes what Franklin and other learned people of the time were thinking about the importance of education for the collective good. The exert below characterizes their educational philosophy.
... "THAT some Persons of Leisure and publick Spirit, apply for a CHARTER, by which they may be incorporated, with Power to erect an ACADEMY for the Education of Youth, to govern the same, provide Masters, make Rules, receive Donations, purchase Lands, &c. and to add to their Number, from Time to Time such other Persons as they shall judge suitable.
That the Members of the Corporation make it their Pleasure, and in some Degree their Business, to visit the Academy often, encourage and (* 2) countenance the Youth, countenance and assist the Masters, and by all Means in their Power advance the Usefulness and Reputation of the Design; that they look on the Students as in some Sort their Children, treat them with Familiarity and Affection, and when they have behav'd well, and gone through their Studies, and are to enter the World, zealously unite, and make all the Interest that can be made to establish them (* 3), whether in Business, Offices, Marriages, or any other Thing for their Advantage, preferably to all other Persons whatsoever even of equal Merit. And if Men may, and frequently do, catch such a Taste for cultivating Flowers, Planting, Grafting, Inoculating, and the like, as to despise all other Amusements for their Sake, why may not we expect they should acquire a Relish for that more useful Culture of young Minds. Thompson says, "
Eight women converted a house to a convent school to educate girls of all races and classes in the French quarters of New Orleans, Louisiana. The group would later build the Ursuline Convent that relocated multiple times over the years. In 1729 they took in 30 orphaned Natchez Indian girls. Over the years they have been willing to educate all races, classes and free or slave. Being catholic and female created special problems for colonial and later times as they worked to achieve their mission. them to over come. Source
Benjamin Franklin, who never attended college, visited Harvard.
Later, he wrote. [Harvard as] "the Temple of Learning, where, for want of a suitable Genius, ... [students] learn little more than how to carry themselves handsomely, and enter a Room genteely, (which might as well be acquir'd at a Dancing-School,) and from whence they return, after Abundance of Trouble and Charge, as great Blockheads as ever, only more proud and self-conceited." Source Later he opened his academy.
Dame schools were usually in the homes of the women (dames) who taught the children. The curriculum was letter & number recognition, reading & writing simple words, and memorization of prayers. Similar to many preschools from 1950-2015.
Etching at right is from 1713.
First American school for slaves and Native Americans in NYC
Elias Neau asked and received support from the Church of England and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to open a school for slaves and Native Americans in New York City. A 1764 report stated: “not a single black” instructed and baptized through the school “had turned out badly or in any way disgraced his profession.” This encouraged additional support for schools assisting African Americans and Indigenous people in other places.
- Argues humans are born without innate ideas already in their mind.
- Argues everything in our mind is one of two types of ideas: Sensory ideas or ideas create by the mind with its own operations.
- Presents a philosophy of language. Language of words that do not refer to things in the world but to the ideas in our heads formed in general terms from specific objects of the world.
- Presents his theory of knowledge. Knowledge as the perception of internal relationships among the minds ideas. Relationships such as: identity, diversity, relations, coexistence, and actual existence. All which exist at three levels.
- Intuitive, which he claims is self-evident and at the top. Examples: Something is either present or absent. Two is more than three. Black is not white.
- Demonstrative is created with reason and is in the middle. Examples: Two apples in one hand and three apples in another hand equals five apples. A feather fall slower than a coin, because air slows it. and
- Sensitive knowledge is that which comes from our senses and is at a lower level more of a pseudo- knowledge. Illusions can trick us. Smell like a rose, but is it a candle, perfume, shampoo? Water or a mirage?
Look into his book Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693).
The Massachusetts Act of 1647 or the Old Deluder, Satan Act
Mandated each town, with fifty families or more, establish a grammar school, where a master shall instruct youth to be fitted for university. It was referred to as the Old Deluder, Satan Act because education was seen as protection against the devil, whose purpose was to keep men from the knowledge of the scriptures. Made towns responsible for educational facilities.
The Massachusetts Act of 1642
Required each town to determine whether its young people could read or write. If children were determined as not being able to read, have knowledge of the Capital Laws, instructed in religion and generally be brought up to be able to achieve higher employment. Parents and people with apprentices, who did not, could be fined or even lose custody of their children. Made parents responsible for their children's education. Source
First printing press in the American Colonies is assembled at Harvard College.
1636 , 1723
Harvard University first named New College
Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, was founded in 1636. The oldest institution of higher education in the United States with its mission to train clergy. Harvard received its official name on March 13, 1639, when John Harvard donated half of his estate and his library of over 400 books. .. see also 1209 Cambridge...
Harvard curriculum (1636) was designed as a four year program of study. However, it was initially reduced to three years because of poor selection of its first master and withdrawal of students as a result of his tyrannical teaching methods.
The curriculum included logic as a basic subject necessary for disciplined thinking, divinity, history and the nature of plants taught in the first year. Rhetoric (effective persuasive speaking or writing) and other compositional techniques were studied by reading a collection of literary pieces which students critiqued by giving two speeches in Latin and Greek before small groups weekly and also monthly before the entire school. Students translated the Old and New Testament from Hebrew into Greek at daily prayer services. Arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, politics and ethics in the later year curriculum. However, politics was Aristotle's Politica and ethics was a practical subject, separate from religion. Instructional methodology followed the advice of Pierre de La Ramee that students should listen to a lecture on each subject, followed by individual study, recitation, discussion, and disputation. In 1655 the first year was expanded to two years with more Greek, Hebrew, logic, and metaphysics returning to the originally plan of four years.
M.A. degree was a three year post-graduate program of individual study with no residence requirement. Study was guided by a minister. A sermon presented to the student body and a written synopsis or compendium of logic was required. Natural philosophy, moral philosophy, arithmetic, geometry or astronomy were studied and presented problems three times and twice had to present a solution in a rhetorical speech before the society. However, flexibility seems to have been allowed in permitting other activities as substitutes.
By 1723 freshman year curriculum was a review of Latin and Greek grammar, a beginning study of Hebrew, and logic. Sophomore curriculum included a continued study of logic, classical literature, and beginning to study natural philosophy. The junior curriculum added ethics, geography, and metaphysics with more natural philosophy. The senior curriculum added arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy.
First Latin Grammar school in Boston opened. Latin grammar school curriculum was meant for the class of people who would become leaders of religion and government. Clergy, ministers, governors, mayors, lawyers, judges, and other learned men.
Elizabethan statutes of 1561
Required each student be proficient in rhetoric, logic, and philosophy, and to be tested in them by public disputations before earning a degree. This included the seven liberal arts: the trivium of grammar, rhetoric, logic; and the quadrivium of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music (see 55). With the three philosophies: natural, moral, mental added in the later years. Instruction was by tutor, who was responsible for four or five students.
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) published his Novum Organum, where he describes a system of logic he believes is superior to Aristotle's syllogism (360 BCE ) or deductive reasoning. It becomes known as the Baconian method, inductive reasoning and the scientific method
He believed it was the best way to draw conclusions about the natural world. An inductive approach of skeptical observation and experimentation with facts and explanation leading to conclusion. Because of this he has been called the father of empiricism and the father of the scientific method.
"British - Francis Bacon - Google Art Project" by British (School, Details of artist on Google Art Project) - UwEFEzZpMHs4JA at Google Cultural Institute, zoom level maximum. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons.
Pilgrims land on Plymouth Rock. Their religious views, ethics, and ideas on education will dominate education in the New England colonies and influence American Education.
Desiderius Erasmus -
Thomas Aquinas -
First recorded student protests at the University of Paris led to the school being closed for two plus years.
Cambridge was found in 1209 by a group of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the towns people. It is the second oldest English-speaking universities and the fourth-oldest university in the world that is still operating.
1284 Cambridge curriculum was to perfect the student's knowledge of Latin and Greek, introduce him to the method of scholasticism, and respect of the authority of the ancients. There was no prescribed course of study other than attendance of public lectures for three years, study theology, Old Testament languages, Hebrew, participate in disputations, and, give three personal opposing responses.
354 - 430 philosophy of education - learners must be aroused by the teacher to discover that which they already hold within themselves.
Quintilian 35 - 95
Institution oratoria was the model used to educate an ideal citizen as an orator. The curriculum of the Trivium and the Quadrivium was used in schools and universities into the 1900's. Trivium included: grammar, rhetoric, and logic; and the quadrivium included: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.
World's first university
Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Khozettan, Iran was started.
Aristotle - 380 - 322 BCE
- Argued that education should be controlled by the State.
- People learn to be virtuous with practice.
- Ethics, evolved by performing just acts. Learning becomes doing or acting.
- If what is being done is virtuous, then learning was intrinsically valuable for the individual and society: the State.
Plato and Socrates
427 - 347 BCE developed a philosophy of education - learning happens when the teacher asks key questions. Socratic Method. The Republic. Education based on interests, abilities, and stations in life. Utopian ideal to produce philosopher kings or guardians rule to the State. Built on Greek rhetoric: the art and process of effective public speaking. First taught by the sophists. See 480 BCE sophist.
Dialectic reasoning or dialectics (Socratic method, Hindu, Buddhist, Medieval, Hegelian dialectics, Marxist, Talmudic, and Neo-orthodoxy.), and modern debate. All involve conversations between two or more people arguing different points of view for the purpose of establishing truth with reasoned argument.
Socrates valued truth as the highest value. Truth discovered through conversation with reason and logic (dialectic reasoning). Logic, not emotion, to discover truth for persuasion and make choices to guide one's life. To Socrates, truth, not art, was the greater good to guide one's life. Therefore, Socrates opposed the sophists and their teaching of rhetoric as art and as emotional oratory requiring neither logic nor proof.
Dialectic method, rhetoric, and debate can have fundamental differences. In theory debate may be considered as unemotional and committed to rational argument. However, in practice debaters can present emotionally charged ideas to suppress rational thought, hoping to persuade others to their point of view. See rhetoric in 480 BCE sophists
Sophists - 480 - 390 BCE
The first teachers of rhetoric: : the art (arte) and process of effective public speaking, in the Greek world were known as the Sophists, or wise men. They taught by example skills of civic life and explored a wide range of human experience within Greek culture. Not being of Athens they often clashed culturally and philosophically with the Athenians.
They taught art had the highest value in life and it should be used to make choices and to seek it out in all things. To them the artistic quality of a speech or oration was its power to motivate, influence, and please people. Therefore, oration was taught as an art form, which was used to please, motivate, and influence other people through quality speaking. Maybe the historical basis for Declamations which are students interpretations of famous speeches they re-give to demonstrate their ability to understand and apply the purpose and power of the speech and skill in public speaking. Samples
Rhetoric is a method or art of speaking or discourse/ conversation to persuade, inform, or motivate an audience. Concepts of rational appeal (logos), emotional appeal, (pathos), and ethical appeal (ethos) are all intentionally used to persuade and convince people of a particular idea or argument.