Affective Domain Bloom And Krathwohl


refers to the studentís willingness to attend to particular phenomena or stimuli (classroom activities, textbook, music, etc.). From a teaching standpoint, it is concerned with getting, holding, and directing the studentís attention. Learning outcomes in this area range from the simple awareness that a thing exists to selective attention on the part of the learner. Receiving represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the affective domain.

Descriptive Activities:

Listens attentively;
Shows awareness of the importance of learning;
Shows sensitivity to social problems
Accepts differences of race and culture
Attends closely to the classroom activities
Question/Statement Verbs:
Asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits erect, replies,


refers to active participation on the part of the student. At this level he not only attends to a particular phenomenon but also reacts to it in some way. Learning outcomes in this area may emphasize acquiescence in responding (reads beyond assignments) or satisfaction in responding (reads for pleasure or enjoyment). The higher levels of this category include those instructional objectives that are commonly classified under interest; that is, those that stress the seeking out and enjoyment of particular activities.

Descriptive Activities:
Completes assigned homework;
Obeys school rules;
Participates in class discussion;
Completes laboratory work;
Volunteers for special tasks;
Shows interest in the subject;
Enjoys helping others;

Question/Statement Verbs:

Answers, assists, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, tells, reports, selects, writes


is concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges in degree from the simpler acceptance of a value (desires to improve group skills) to the more complex level of commitment (assumes responsibility for the effective functioning of the group). Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, but clues to these values are expressed in the studentís overt behavior that is consistent and stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable. Instructional objectives that are commonly classified under attitudes and appreciation would fall into this category.

Descriptive Activities:
Demonstrates belief in the democratic process
Appreciates good literature
Appreciates the role of science in everyday life
Shows concern for the welfare of others
Demonstrates problem solving attitude
Demonstrates commitment to social improvement

Question/Statement Verbs:

Completes, describes, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works


is concerned with bringing together values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system. Thus the emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Learning outcomes may be concerned with the conceptualization of a value (recognizes the responsibility of each individual for improving human relations) or with the organization of a value system (develops a vocational plan that satisfies his need for both economic security and social service). Instructional objectives relating to the development of a philosophy of life would fall into this category.

Descriptive Activities:
Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsibility in a democracy
Recognizes the role of systematic planning in problem solving
Accepts responsibility for own behavior
Understands and accepts own strengths and weaknesses
Formulates a life plan in harmony with his abilities, interests, and beliefs

Question/Statement Verbs:

Adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes


at this level of the affective domain, the individual has a value system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time for him to develop a characteristic life style. Thus the behavior is pervasive, consistent, and predictable. Learning outcomes at this level cover a broad range of activities, but the major emphasis is on the fact that the behavior is typical or characteristic of the student. Instructional objectives that are concerned with the studentís general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional) would be appropriate here.

Descriptive Activities:
Displays safety consciousness
Demonstrates self reliance in working independently
Practices cooperation in-group activities
Uses objective approach in problem solving
Demonstrates industry and self discipline
Maintains good health habits

Question/Statement Verbs:

Acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, per forms, practices, pro poses, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, uses, verifies
Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: handbook I, cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Co.
Gronlund, N.E. (1981). Measurement and evaluation in teaching. New York: MacMillan.
Harrow, A.J. (1972). A taxonomy of the psychomotor domain. New York: David McKay Co.K
Krathwohl, D.R. (Ed.). (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives: handbook II, affective domain. New York: David McKay Co.

Dr. Robert Sweetland's Notes ©