Madeline Hunter
Seven Instructional Steps
Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP)
Mastery learning
Directed instruction


  1. Anticipatory set is used to prepare students for the lesson by setting the students' minds for instruction. This is achieved by asking a question or making statements to pique interest, create mental images, review information, and initiate the learning process.
  2. Stating the objective to students alerts them to what they will need to do and the purpose of the lesson.
  3. Instructional input is where the student gains the knowledge needed to achieve the objective.
  4. Modeling is when the instructor, or student(s), demonstrates how to achieve the objective.
  5. Check for understanding is when the teacher checks to see if the students understand the concept or steps and how to enact them to achieve the objective.
  6. Guided Practice is when the students do the objective under the guidance of a support system that can assure success.
  7. Independent practice is when the students practice what they learn, after they are capable of performing the objective without support.
  8. Closure reviews and extends what has been learned. May tie the beginning of the lesson to the end. Resolves all issues and ends the lesson. All students should know it is time to move on to something else.

While these elements are sequential, Hunter has stated that they are to act as a guide for instruction and teachers can combine and eliminate steps as required. Further teachers must constantly evaluate students and adjust what they do sometimes returning to previous steps and reteaching.



Dr. Robert Sweetland's notes &