Data - information or facts that support the claim.
Warrants - philosophies, beliefs, assumptions, or rules that we believe justify the connection between the data and the conclusion.
Qualifier - are conditions under which the claim may not hold (exceptions to the rule).
Conclusion - decision for action.
Students should be given opportunities to discover mistakes on their own without the teacher telling them they are incorrect.
Students sometimes collect inaccurate information, use previous ideas (misconceptions) to draw conclusions, and use faulty logic when making them.
Scientific experimentation should not depend on an authority figure. The results should depend on accurate observation and logical reasoning. Students should be allowed to experience the consequences of their investigations.
Students need to learn the process of scientific inquiry. Students should generally rely on their own judgment rather than on an authority figure to judge what data to collect to resolve a scientific question. Students need to be allowed to make mistakes to develop a risk free environment. Scientific practice has a way of correcting itself. Students must be allowed to construct knowledge for themselves.
Students need supervision to insure a safe environment. For example, students will communicate their procedures to teachers before they begin, so safety will be insured and learning can be facilitated.
Students should be corrected when they are mistaken.
Students collect inaccurate information, use previous ideas (misconceptions) to make conclusions, and use faulty logic when making them.
Students should not be allowed to leave an activity with false and misleading conclusions.
Students should not be allowed to learn incorrect or misleading ideas.
Students should be corrected when possible except in the case of “useful fictions” that are not too far wrong and that facilitate learning of the correct thing when students are able to comprehend it.
A study found that smaller class size significantly increased the achievement of students and increased their positive attitudes toward school and themselves. Authors of the study felt that smaller class size contributed to these positive effects by: creating a positive teacher morale for smaller classes, allowed teachers more time to spend with individual students, less students created an instructional atmosphere that was less hectic, and students had more time on task. The study also showed that while all students achieved more on the average lower ability students achieved less than higher ability students. Thus, attempts to enable lower ability students an opportunity to catch-up instead allowed the higher ability students to move further ahead.