# History of Mathematics Education in North America

See also history of education in the United States

Mayan invented the use of zero

### 1556 – Spanish

### Before 1700 – 11

11 Math books published

### 1703

1^{st} book math content in English “Young
Secretarial’s Assistant”

### 1729

1^{st} arithmetic text book Greenway Method, School
Master’s Assistant, Pike’s
arithmetic

### 1821- 1894

Rise of the University - Rousou Froebel

### 1839

1^{st} Public normal school in MA

### 1898

First Teacher's College - Columbia

### 1896

University of Nebraska - Lincoln

### 1895 –

Graduate College oldest West of the Mississippi

### 1821 –

Colburn’s Arithmetic

### 1920-1930

Learning Theory as theTeaching of “Mental Discipline.” Mind made up of faculties and the more it was used the stronger they became (memory muscles) this was known as Faculty Psychology

Thorndike at Columbia University destroy this theory with his experiments.

Brownel advocated practical knowledge

### 1920

Reform, decreasing enrollments, the depression, pragmatism, and the lack of interest in memorization lead to the idea that meaning needs to be taught.

### 1950+

Meaning VS. drill

WW II draftees were found to be inadequate in their education - *Steelman* report – need technicians, engineers, scientists

Study at Columbia
found that 80% of the students who could do:

(x+y)^{2} = x^{2} + 2xy + y^{2} ;

couldn't do (u + t)^{2} = t ^{2} + 2ut + t ^{2 }or

(40+2)^{2} = 40 ^{2} + 2*40*2 + 2 ^{2}

### 1951

University of Illinois Commission on School Mathematics lead by Max Beberman created an excellent high school curriculum for college bound students.

Then the Illinois Arithmetic Project headed by David Page created an elementary curriculum

### 1952

both were comleted and had the discovery method built in.

### 1957

Sputnik – World War II, felt education needed help, were we a backward country? When the US rocket was launched to try to catch the Russians it blew up. Blame was put squarely on the schools.

NeededTechnology - created the National Science Foundation for the purposeto enhance science.

It was given $ to create workshops to help teachers iin high schools, then junior high schools and elementary.

### 1977

SMSG School Mathematics Study Group headed by Ed Begle from Stanford University decided that to improve student learning of mathematics the curriculum could be improved by improving the texts.

Thought they could write an imporced text in a summer , try it the following school year and revise it the next summer.

### 1965

Every major Publishing co. was publishing copies of math books.

1965

Solid Geometry dropped was dropped down to 10th grade & not hit good enough.

### 1962 - 1963

Modern Math

Madison Project – Robert Davis

Ball State Project -

GCMP Greater Cleveland Math Project

Bring school curriculum in line with mathematics because math had changed

### 1970

Publishing Companies were publishing their 3^{rd} generation of math books

There was interest in individual students, accountability, and a counter revolution that lead to a Back to the basics Movement

### 1975

NACOME - Report

### 1980

Prism Project – Survey with Recommendations as a result of the project

Problem Solving, Piaget, Ganya, Bruner, Modern Math – Abstract

There were now 57-62 different text books and they were rapidly changeing

More talk about our Technological edge and money was being taken out of education creating a time bomb while other countries were dumping money into eduation.

The number of Secondary schools all over the country were decreasing their requirements for math

### 1985

A Nation at Risk

### 1989

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics published their first Standards Book.