# Data Analysis and Probability Primary grades K-3

## Data Analysis

### Facts, Concepts, and Generalizations

• Number values can be attached to objects, ideas, and their associated properties.
• Information about objects can be collected, compared, interpreted, organized, displayed, and used to explain something about the objects.
• Data can be arranged in different ways.
• Organization of data can help interpretation (graphs, charts, tables, Venn diagrams...)
• Samples can be used to make predictions.
• Range of data is the spread or difference between the least and most set of quantities (smallest and largest quantities) Range is affect most by an extreem quantity.
• Mean (arithmetic mean or average) is the sum of the value of each item divided by the number of items.
• Measure of central tendency includes average, mean, mode, median...
• Mode is the item represented the most in a set of data.
• Median is the middle set of data. Mean is equal to the number of cases plus one divided by 2. It would be the middle value in an odd numbers set of cases or the mid point between the two middle sets of cases in an even number of cases.
• Different data measures may be appropriate to describe different sets of data.
• Table
• Bar graphs are used with categorical data.
• Scatter plot
• Stem and leaf plot... A stem and leaf plot can be used to find mean, median, or mode.
• Line graph

Ones like this belong in dual catgories. Data analysis and communication. The information collection and analysis process can be explained to others for different purposes.

### Outcomes

• Organize concrete objects according to related properties for quantities from least to most.
• Identify properties of objects and events and use them to organize and describe data by quantities: least, most, range, and mid values.
• Collect, record, organize, and interpret data in line plots, tables, charts, and graphs (pie graphs, bar graphs, and pictographs).
• Use pictures or symbols to represent properties of quantity of objects to describe those objects or events by range, least, most ...
• Describe like properties with different values as variables.
• Describe relationships with other properties and variables.
• Draw valid conclusions from data displayed in line plots, tables, charts, and graphs (pie graphs, bar graphs, and pictographs).

## Probability

### Facts, Concepts, and Generalizations

• An event has a set of outcomes. The smallest set of outcomes is the empty set or impossibility.
• Events are impossible, possible, or certain.
• Probability is how likely an outcome is to occur.
• A fair game is one in which every player has an equal opportunity to be successful.
• A tree diagram can be used to identify all outcomes of events.