Four Cueing System

1. Phonological System:

Phonology The study of sounds.
Phoneme The smallest unit of sound.
Grapheme The written representation of a sound    (one or more letters).

2. Syntactic System

Syntax or grammar The rules for combining words into sentences
Morphology The study of linguistics or word form.
Morpheme The smallest meaningful unit in a language (someone—some, one; inside—in, side).
Free morpheme A morpheme that is a word
Bound morpheme A morpheme that IS NOT a word and must be attached to a free morpheme.

3. Semantic System

Semantics A branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning (such as sense, reference, implication and logical forms.
Formal semantics Word meaning and word relations (lexical and cognitive structure) (Cognitive semantics)

4. Pragmatic System

Pragmatics Branch of linguistics that deals with the social and cultural aspects of language; (taking turns in a conversation, text organization, pre-supposition and implied meaning).
Function The purpose for which a language is used.
Dialect Variations in syntax and word choice due to social class, ethnic or cultural group or geographic region.
Standard English The form of English used in textbooks and by television newscasters.
Non-standard English Other forms of English.


Dr. Robert Sweetland's Notes ©