home page image

Literature, Art, & Media
1900 to 1999

Date Event
1900 The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, by L. Frank Baum. The George M. Hill Publishing Co.: Chicago. Born May 15, 1856 in Chittennango, NY died 1919.
The film is better known than the book and many believe its visual imagery and powerful characterization make it superior to the book.
Interesting site The Oz Club
1901 & 1902 Tale of Peter Rabbit, by Beatrix Potter set the standard for illustrations in children's books. She also believed that when writing for children one should have something to say and say it in simple direct language.
1902 Just So Stories, Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) is a collection of children’s animal fables related to poems by Rudyard Kipling. Fables with creative descriptions of how different animals acquired physical characteristics, like how a leopard got its spots.

John Crow's Garden, by L. Leslie Brooke

Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, by Kate Douglas Wiggins made into a popular 1930's shirley Temple Film both have a sentimental tone and moralizing.

Peter Pan or The Boy Who Would Not Grow Up, J. M. Barrie first written as a play and later as a story Peter and Wendy (1911) Barrie is credited with the invention of the name Wendy.


The Bobbsey Twins or Merry Days Indoors and Out, by Howard Garis

Ann of Green Gables, by Lucy Maud Montgomery (Canadian writer)

1908 The Wind in the Willows, by Kenneth Grahame
1911 The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett is a romantic piece rich in symbolism.
1913 Pollyanna, Eleanor H. Porter Made in to the Walt Disney film in the 1950's and Black musical made-for-television. Have a sentimental tone and moralizing.

First separate children's book department was established by Macmillan Company. The book department was headed by Louise Seaman who published a wide variety of informational books. Other children's book departments were created from 1920-1940

The Ransom of Red Chief, O. Henry


The Story of Dr. Dolittle, Hugh Lofting

The Voyages of Dr. Dolittle, by Hugh Lofting won the second Newberry Medal Award

1921 or 1922 The Story of Mankind, written and illustrated by Hendrik Willem Van Loon in 1921.
  • It was the first winner of the Newberry Medal Award in 1922.
  • The Story of Mankind, was published by Horace Liveright, an adult book publisher.
  • It is one of the very few nonfiction winners of a Newberry Award and the only history book. Other nonfiction books are biographies.
1922 The Velveteen Rabbit, by Margery Williams Bianco
1923 Bambi, by Felis Salten (German writer) Disney Movie increased it's popularity

The first Horn Book Magazine was published

When We Were Very Young, A. A. Milne

1926 Winnie the Pooh, A. A. Milne about Milne's own son. Written to interest young children and adults.
1927 Doubleday started a children's book department

Millions of Cats, Wanda Gag

Abe Lincoln Grows Up, Carl Sandburg

1929 Hitty, Her First Hundren Years, Rachel Field
1932 Little House in the Big Woods, Laura Ingalls Wilder. Her stories are about a central American plains frontier family life with a strong nuclear family.
Other books:
  • On the Way Home (1962),
  • The First Four Years, (1971)
1933 The Story of Babar, Jean de Brunhoff

The Invincible Louisa, the Life of Louisa May Alcott, Cornelia Meigs one of few nonfiction (biography) to win Newberry award (1934)

Mary Poppins, P. L. Travers The 1964 Disney movie is much different.

1935 Caddie Woodlawn, Carol Ryric Brink

And to Think That I Saw it on Mulberry Street, Dr. Seuss's first book. There were many more over the next fifty plus years.

Hobbit, John Ronald Reuel Tolkein

Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck. Tragic fiction about two out of work ranch workers, George Milton and Lennie Small, who travel California in search of jobs during the Great Depression. Spark notes.


First Caldecott Medal awarded.

superman cover image

First Superman comic sold for 10 cents.
Sold at auction for $1 000 000 on February 2, 2010.






On October 30, 1938, Orson Welles broadcast an adaptation of The War of the Worlds with the Martians landing in New Jersey, on his radio program, The Mercury Theatre.


Madeline, Ludwig Bemelmans

Daniel Boone, James Daugherty. One of a few nonfiction (biography) to win Newberry Award (1940).


Call It Courage, Armstrong Sperry

Abraham Lincoln, the picture book biography Ingri and Edgar Parin D'Aulaire won the Caldecott Medal in 1940. The book doesn't mention Lincoln's assasination. It ends at the end of the Civil War and Lincoln sits down to rest in his rocking chair.


Indian Captive, The Story of Mary Jemison, Lois Lenski

Make Way for Ducklings, Robert McCloskey

1942 The Little House, Virginia Lee Burton

Little Navajo Bluebird, Ann Nolan Clark

Johnny Tremain, Esther Forbes


Rabbit Hill, Rabbit Lawson

One God: The Ways We Worship Him, photo illustrated nonfiction book of rituals of the major religions in America


Pippi Longstocking, Astrid Lindgren (Swedish writer) about a girl with superhuman strength, complete independence, and strong character.

Animal Farm, George Orwell, is set in a dystopian society. However, the plot and setting begins as a utopian society that soon becomes clear that the price for a utopian, perfect, society is ... well, the theme of the book.


Stone Soup, Marcia Brown

Discovering Designs, Marion Downer photo illustrated nonfiction about patterns found in nature and in art

Howdy Doody (puppet) and Buffalo Bob. First kids TV superstars on the Howdy Doody Show.


Crusader Rabbit was drawn for an animated TV show. Creator, Jay Ward, later created the longer remembered, Rocky and His Friends

1984, George Orwell, is set in a dystopian society. Animal Farm and 1984 are books that have defines an Orwellian society and Big Brother.

1950 Henry Huggins, Beverly Cleary
1950-56 Narnia Chronicles, C. S. Lewis. Are Christian allegories beginning with the book, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.

Catcher in the Rye, J. D. Salinger is a book for adolescents. It was the beginning of a realistic style that deals with real world problems with all the blemishes and harsh realities of life. Not a sterile, everything is great, world.

Amos Fortune, Free Man, Eliz abeth Yates. One of few nonfiction (biography) to win the Newberry award (1934).


Anne Frank Diary of a Young Girl, Anne Frank, autobiography.

Charlotte's Web, E. B. White

The Biggest Bear, Lynd Ward


Winky Dink and You. First interactive TV program for kids. Viewers put a piece of plastic over the TV and drew on it with crayons to help Winky solve problems.

The Borrowers, Mary Norton

Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury is a dystopian novel where books are outlawed burned when found, hence, the title: derived from the temperature at which paper catches fire. Spark notes


Captain Kangaroo, the Captain, Mr. Greenjeans, Bunny rabbit, and other friends offered morality lessons, for 30 years.

Mickey Mouse Club. Kids soap opera for daily after school viewing.
First teen TV idols Annettte Funnecello, Jimmie Dodd, Bobby Burgess, Cubby O'Brien, Doreen Tracy, Karen Pendleton, RLonnie Burr, and Sharon Baird. Roy Williams was ...

Carry On Mr Bowditch, Jean Latham. One of few nonfiction (biography) to win Newberry award (1956).

What's Inside?, May Garelick. A photo illustrated nonfiction book that shows a step-by-step birth of a gosling.

Men, Microscopes, and Living Things, Katherine Shippen.


Psychologist Frederic Wertham testified to Congress that comic books contribute to juvenile delinquency.
The general thought about comics ranged from reading them is okay, to reading them is a waste of time. That only the uneducated or those who never would amount to much read them, to they will rot your brain.

Miracles on Maple Hill, Virginia Sorenson


Building Blocks of the Universe, Isaac Asimov

The Cat in the Hat, Dr. Seuss, Theodor Seuss Geisel


The Cabin Faced West, Jean Fritz

The Witch of Blackbird Pond, Elizabeth George Speare


My Side of the Mountain, Jean George

Little Blue and Little Yellow, Leo Lionni

Words of Science and the History Behind Them, Isaac Asimov


Let's Read and Find Out series, nonfiction science books as a response to Sputnik published by Thomas Y. Crowell.

A Bear Called Paddington, Michael Bond

Island of the Blue Dophins, Scott O'Dell

Inch by Inch, Leo Lionni


The FCC chairman, Newton Minow, declares: TV is "A VAST WASTELAND"

The Bullwinkle Show airs. Its themes and plots attract kids and parents who enjoy satire and creative writing.

The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, C. S. Lewis

Phantom Tollbooth, Norton Juster

The Incredible Journey, Sheila Burnford

Marvel Comics on November 1961 released the Fantastic Four. A series about four astronauts who travel through a radiation shower and attain super powers because of radiation induced mutations. First radiation induced superhero characters.


A Wrinkle in Time, Madeleine L. Engle

The Snowy Day, Ezra Jack Keats

Pat the Bunny, Dorothy Kunhardt


Where the Wild Things Are, Maurice Sendak

It's Like This Cat, Emily Neville

Mister Rogers Neighborhood. Welcome to the neighborhood, won't you be my friend?

Marvel Comics released X-Men in September 1963. It was the first plot with conflict between mutants and normal humans. Where the mutants are forced to segregate themselves at a school for the gifted to protect and rehabilitate them. Professor X is the founder of Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters (X-Mansion) in Salem Center, Westchester County, New York. Characters include,five mutants: Angel (Archangel), Beast, Cyclops, Iceman, and Marvel Girl (Jean Grey); Professor X and archenemy - Magneto.


President Johnson's, Great society program funded all types of children's books with nonfiction getting the largest percentage. Thomas Y. Crowell created a series of history books about prominent men and women.

Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, Ian Fleming

Harriet the Spy, Louise Fitzhugh

The Pushcart War, Jean Merrill

The Book of Three, Lloyd Alexander five books of high fantasy

Across Five Aprils, Irene Hunt


1965 Prydain Chronicles, Lloyd Alexander. The Book of Three and sequels
1966 The Road Runner Show comes to TV.

The Outsiders. S. E. (Susan Eloise) Hinton. Sixteen year old friends Mark and Byron struggle with involvement with girls, drugs, and gangs. Cliff notes.

The White Mountains, John Chrostopher. Trilogy.

Zeely, Virginia Hamilton

A Wizard of Earthsea, Ursula Le Guin Earthsea series


From the Mixed Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler, Konisberg

Beatles released Sargent Peppers Lonely Heart Club Band, the first concept album that was universally accepted. Bored with what they were doing they sought new sounds and beats.

  1. 1. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band 2:02
  2. With a Little Help from My Friends 2:44
  3. Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds 3:29
  4. Getting Better 2:50
  5. Fixing a Hole 2:37
  6. She's Leaving Home 3:35
  7. Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! 2:38
  8. Within You Without You 5:05
  9. When I'm Sixty-Four 2:38
  10. Lovely Rita 2:43
  11. Good Morning Good Morning 2:42
  12. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
  13. A Day in the Life 5:34

Sesame Street sets a new standard for kids TV and PBS home of good kids' TV

To Be a Slave, Julius Lester first book on African American history that won a Newberry Honor award.

Trouble River, Betsy Byars later television movie

Where the Lilies Bloom, Vera and Bill Cleaver

Sounder, William H. Armstrong

The Cay, Theodore Taylor

Sylvester and the Magic Pebble, William Steig

1970-1980 Federal subsidies for the purchase of books was stopped and many older titles went out of print. Resulted in a stabilazation of the number of hardback books published into the 1990's and a significant increase in paperpback books published.

Small Worlds Close Up, Lisa ZGrillone and Joseph Gennaro photo illustrated nonfiction.

Summer of the Swans, Betsy Byars

Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret, Judy Blume

Blowfish Live in the Sea, Paula Fox


The Electric Company for kids after Sesame Street to learn to read.

Mrs Frisby and the Rats of NIMH, Robert O"Brien

Frog and Toad Are Friends, Arnold Lobel

Moha Means One: Swahili Counting Book, Muriel Feelings

Leo, the Late Bloomer, Robert Kraus

That Was Then, This Is Now, S. E. (Susan Eloise) Hinton.


The Tombs of Atuan, Ursula Le Guin

Julie of the Wolves, Jean Craighead George

Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day, Judith Viorst

The Marrow of the World, Ruth Nichols


Nana Upstairs Nana Downstairs, Tomie de Paola

Roll of Thunder Hear My Cry, Mildred D. Taylor, sequel to song of the Trees, 1975.

A Taste of Blackberries, Doris Smith


The Slave Dancer, Paula Fox

The Dark is Rising, Susan Cooper

The Valley of the Shadow, Janet Hickman


Tuck Everlasting, Natalie Babbitt also movie in 2000

Dragonwings, Lawrence Yep

M.C. Higgins the Great, Virginia Hamilton

Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears, Leo and Diane Dillon


Where Do All the Prizes Go? Milton Meltzer, in Horn Book February 1976. Awards created on the heels of this publication: The Boston Globe-Horn Book Award for nonfiction; The Golden Kite Award for nonfiction given by the society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators; the Orbis Pictus Award presented by the National Council of Teachers of English; and The Washington Post-Children's Book Guild Award.

Lizard Music, D. Manus Pinkwater

Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, Mildred Taylor


Bridge to Terabithia, Katherine Paterson

I'm Deborah Sampson: A Soldier in the War of the Revolution, Patricia Clapp

Anpao: An Indian Odyssey, Jamake Highwater


Nickelodeon first children's network started and was commerial-free

Teachers in New Zealand’s were using oversized or big books for shared reading with their students. Described in Foundations of Literacy (1979) by Don Holdaway.

Children of the West, by Russell Freedman photo illustrated with archival photographs and nonfiction

1980 Children's book reviewer Hazel Rochman, in an editorial, began to demand authors provide detailed notes on their sources in all informational books. By 1990 most nonfiction books included not just source notes but glossaraies, tables of important dates, suggestions for further reading, and other kinds of supplementary materials.

The Smurfs. Took marketing to a new level. First seen as sexist, but evolved into a message-heavy show by 1987

Jacob Have I Loved, by Katherine Paterson

The Haunting, by Margaret Mahy (New Zealand writer) book won Carnegie Medal


Water; The Next Great Resource Battle, by Laurence Pringle

When I Was Young in the Mountains, by Cynthia Rylant


The Changeover, by Margaret Mahy (New Zealand writer) book won Carnegie Medal

Dicey's Song, by Cynthia Voight


The Transformers - characters- based on a toy, plot violence driven, and theme of power are central to every show.

One-Eyed Cat, by Paula Fox

Dear Mr Henshaw, by Beverly Cleary


Commodore Perry in the Land of the Shogan, by Rhoda Blumberg.

Sarah, Plain and Tall, by Patricia MacLachlan


Lincoln: A Photobiography, by Russell Freedman one of few nonfiction (biography) to win Newberry award (1988) first since 1956 Carry on Mr. Bowditch.

Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Action and violence seemingly reduced with an emphasis on character, teen turtles with Italian artist names, and fight scenes that appear more pretend than realistic ... How can it be violent if it's pretend?

1988 Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices, by Paul Fleishman

Children's Television Act. Legislation that requires networks to broadcast three hours of educational programming per week.

Oh the Places You'll Go, by Dr. Seuss


Mange graphic Novels - Tokyo Babylon: A Save Tokyo City Story, Clamp published in Japan. Story Nanase Ohkawa, Comic Mokona Apapa.

Nothing But the Truth: A Documentary Novel, by Avi


Just Grandma and Me: First Living Book ever produced was released March 31, 1992. Original book by Mercer Mayer was printed in 1983. The Learning Company, Inc.

Barney - purple dinosaur. If you love him you're either under five or need something to keep a child occupied while you catch your breath. Marketing the purple reptile seems a fact of nature by now. Isn't evolution great Smurfs ... Barney ....


The Giver, by Lois Lowry.

Mighty Morphin Power Rangers - first girl superhero, incase you didn't know, she's the Pink Ranger...


Toy Story produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures in the US Nov. 22, 1995. Critics claim it rendered children films like Bambi, Pinocchio, Dumbo, The Lion King... extinct. As the script talks to adults, with its dry humor, as well as children. Paving the way for later filmns such as Shrek, Up, Fantastic Mr. Fox, Wall-E, and so on.

The Watsons Go to Birmingham - 1963. Christopher Paul Curtis. Historical fiction about a family who travels South, where one family member becomes involved in one of the darkest incidents in American history.


Blue's Clues. Dective work with an adorable puppy... yeah the color is?

Communications Decency Act (CDA) enacted regulations to protect minors from indecency on the Web. It was later found in violation of the First Amendment.

The Children's Online Privacy Act (COPPA) was written to regulate the personal collection of personal information from children.

[ Previous 1800 - 1899 ] ------ [ Next 2000 - 2099 ]