The Grolier Codex. consists of eleven damaged sheets of fig-bark paper that is an almanac for the planet Venus. It is thought to have originally been about twenty pages. It is written and illustrated in a combination of Maya and Mixtec
|1300-1500||Chinese movable type first wood then metal. Was tedious because it required thousands of characters to complete a book.|
|1455||Movable type and the press (probably adapted from an olive or wine press) were used by Gutenberg to complete the first printed book with this method.First used wood blocks, later metal plates, First book printed was the Bible. Later books had other religious stories and playing cards were also printed and sold.|
|1422-1491|| William Caxton was the first printer in England. Some titles he printed were: Caxton's Book of Curtesye, Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, The Boke of Histories of Hason, The Historye of Reynart the Foxe, and The Fables of Aesop's
History of printing in England and William Caxton is described in the children's historical fiction book Bendy's Quest. (Map)
|1440||Hornbook - wood with paper, had alphabet, numerals, and sometimes the Lord's Prayer. Covered with transparent horn, fastened with strips of brass around the edges, and hung around the neck or belt. Supposedly Queen Elizabeth I used a hornbook and it's still in existence.|
|1476||Caxton's printing press|
|1484||Aesop's Fables - translated and printed in England by William Caxton|
|First books that children read were written for adults|
|1487||Les Contenances de la Table, by Jean Du Pre? first printed book intended to be read specifically by children, other than Latin grammar books a French book of rhyming quatrains on table manners.|
|1516||Sir Thomas More writes Utopia, first use of the word, utopia, that means an imagined place or state of things in which everything is perfect: paradise, nirvana. Opposite is dystopia.|
| Dorothy Penn writes that Mexico had a printing press in 1539 that printed booklets in Spanish to instruct Native Americans in the christian faith.
The book, Doctrina Breve, written by Juan de Zumárraga (first bishop of Mexico) was printed in 1544.
The book, Doctrina Christiana, was the first book printed in South America, Lima in 1584. Religous information translated into Native American languages.
Don Quixote, written by Miguel de Cervantes, published in 1605, was an instant success and is considered the best Spanish novel of all time along with a second volume, published in 1615. Cervantes drew from his experiences to write a popular piece of fiction where a middle aged man, Don Quixote, is the main character.
Inspired by chivalrous ideals he gained from his literary past he arms himself with a lance and sword, mounts his trusty steed (old nag), Rocinante, and sets out to defend the helpless. In his quest he befriends, Sancho Panza, who becomes his loyal and faithful squirer as they travel La Mancha in search of adventure and glory to honor the Princess (peasant women) Dulcinea del Toboso. Cervantes has described his books as humerous tales to undermine ideas in other "vain and empty books of chivalry".
|1630-1790|| Chapbooks - Jack the Giant Killer
Chapbooks inexpensive books from a penny that were sold by peddlers (chapmen). They had 16, 32, 64 pages that were usually folded with no binding or fastener.
They included any stories that could be found retold in a drastically condensed version.
All literary quality or charm was lost, the grammar was often faulty. It was action and adventure that moved along a simple plot to tell the story.
Moravian bishop and educator, John Amos Comenius (1592-1671) put into practice his belief in better education for children by preparing the world's first children's picture book, published at Nuremberg in 1657 as Orbis Sensualium Pictus, (The World Illustrated). A German/Latin textbook with pictures and descriptions of all chief things in the World. It was to entice witty children to it ... to stir up their attention... by sport, and a merry pastime. Translated to English in 1659 as A World of Things Obvious to the Senses.
The Project Gutenberg EBook - Orbis Pictus -
|164?|| Milk for Babes, Drawn of the Breasts of Both Testaments, Chiefly for the Spiritual Nourishment of Boston Babes in either England, but may be of like Use for any Children - This was the first book for children published in the new world. Written by John Candy? Later he added - A Catechism in Verse, which begins: Who is the Maker of all Things? The Almighty God who reigns on high. He formed the earth, He spread the sky.
Its famous rhyming alphabet begins: In Adams fall We sinners all. Thy life to men? God's Book attend.
Illustrations include - a figure contemplating a tombstones and the burning of Mr.. Rogers, whilehis wife and 10 children watch.
|1671|| A Token For Children: Being an Exact Account of the Conversion Holy and Exemplary Lives, and Joyful Deaths of several young Children Prayers and Graces, Fitted for the Use of Little Children, by James Janewa.
A famous book that was long popular with the heaven-bent adults who ruled over Puritan nurseries. Twenty some stories where the main character was aged 5-15 and piously dies after an admirable life knowing the scriptures and believing his or her salvation.
|1678||Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan - (part 1 1678, part 2 1684). Out of the Puritan world one great book for children. Bunyan read chapbooks as a child and one History of the Life and Death of that Noble Knight Sir Bevis of South Hampton, was influential in his writing Pilgrim's Progress.|
|1682||Mary Rowlandson, also Mary Talcott (c. 1637 – January 5, 1711) a colonial American woman captured by Native Americans and held for 11 weeks before being ransomed. In 1682, six years after her ordeal, she wrote about it in, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. Her book is considered a seminal American work read by New England and in England. It can be considered the first American bestseller. A narrative that was a source for eighteenth and nineteenth-century writers James Fenimore Cooper, Ann Bleecker, John Williams, and James Seaver. Source|
|1693||John Locke (1632-1704) book, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. describes how he believed children were rational creatures with individual needs, not miniature adults to be taught by rote. He believed in the effectiveness of learning through play rather than force-feeding of social values... His ideas were later ignored and overshadowed by Rousseau. Children as blank slates (tabula rasa) making education the responsibility of adults and discounted heredity and the idea all children are born with the capacity to learn.|
|1690 or 91||New England Primer: Alphabet through rhymes, lessons in spelling, reading and catechism|
|1697||Tales of Mother Goose, by Charles Perrault or Pierre Perrault d"Armancour|
|1712||A Little Book for Little Children, by T. W.: first book to use an approach from the point of view of the child rather than the adult.|
In France Contes de Ma Mere l'oye or Histories of Long Ago or Tales of Long Ago with Morals, or more familiar Tales of Mother Goose.
|1711-1780||Beauty and the Beast and other fairy tales, by Mme. de Beaumont|
Devine and Moral Songs for the Use of Children, by Isacc Watts (1674-1748). Moralized lessons in verse about busy bees and quarrelsome dogs, wrote tender and beautiful hymns which didn't dwell on fearful God, but God as our refuge.
Against Idleness and Mischief.
|1719|| Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe (1659-1731) wrote in advance of his times about all kinds of social problems, Put in pillory, poor, and prison. continued to write when 60, writing for adults, children skip masses of moral ruminations, children's editions are usually abridged.
Adventure stories and theme of shipwrecked was later copied in 1812, by Johann David Wyss, (1743-1818) in his The Swiss Family Robinson.
|1726||Gulliver's Travels, by Jonathan Swift. He was worried about how it would be received so he first published it anonymously as Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships. Now known as Gulliver's Travels In 1735 an amended version was published with additons and changes by the publisher and maybe Swift. Most people have images of Gulliver awakening bound with tiny little people crawling all over him, wether they have read the book or not.|
|1729||Mother Goose was translated by R. Samber and published by John Newberry, who discovered the importance of children's books as a potential market. With his success in the children's book market he included a book with each sale of Dr. James Fever Powders (1744).|
A Little Pretty Pocket Book, by John Newberry
A Little Pretty Pocket Book,
Intended for the Instruction and Amusement of Little Master Tommy, and Pretty Miss Polly
With two Letters from JACK the GIANT-KILLER.
A Ball and PINCUSHION
The use of which will infallible make Tommy a good Boy and Polly a good Girl.
To which is added,
A Little Song-book,
A new attempt to teach children the English alphabet, by way of diversion.
They were moral letters, games, fables, proverbs, poems, rules of behavior, and rhyming alphabet The style and tone was light and moralistic. The ball and pincushion was an example of an early reward system similar to a contract where pins were inserted into the red side when the child was good and into the black side when the child did bad things. If all the pins were in the red side the publisher would send a penny, if all pins made it to the black side, the publisher would send a switch.
|1745||The Governess or The Little Female Academy, by Sarah Fielding.|
|1746-1770||Battledore, conceived by one of John Newbery's workers, had three folding cardboard leaves. Alphabets, easy reading, numerals, and woodcut illustrations.|
|1762|| Emile, by Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Proclaimed a new day for children in this book. Children should not be forced into a straight jacket of adulthood. Proper moral development by living the simple life. He was more or less ignored as authors took to more didactic stories (intellectual - Locke), or religion (Puritanical). Each story was made into a lesson of moral information to inform or educate, not the fear of Hell, but the pressure of information.
|1765||Little Goodie Two Shoes, or The Renowned History of Little Goody Two Shoes, Otherwise Called Mrs. Margery Two Shoes, First novel written for children, by Oliver Goldsmith who told the story of a virtuous and clever child, Margery Meanwell.|
|1783-1789|| The History of Sandford and Merto - four didactic volumes by Thomas Day.
Tommy Merton was the spoiled, helpless, ignorant son of a rich gentleman, while Jerry Sandford was the industrious, competent son of an honest farmer. His father realizes this and charges his son's education to Maria Edgeworth, four volumes later he will study and philosophize forever.
|1785||Mother Goose - First American edition published by Isaiah Thomas. Probably pirated from a Newberry edition.|
|1786||History of the Robins, by Sarah Trimmer (1741-1810) an animal story with talking animals. It was thought as illogical.|
|1789|| Songs of Innocence, by William Blake, a book of poems for and about children with each poem illustrated by Blake (1757-1827).
1794 Songs of Experience by William Blake a companion to Songs of Innocence.
|1796|| The Purple Jar, by Maria Edgeworth (1744-1817)
Followed the ideas of Rousseau and told moral tales with dramatic realism, Her stories had real plots, sustained suspense and surprise endings that took some of the sting from the inevitable morals. However, the writing was so didactic that plots and characterization were weakened. Also wrote Simple Susan.
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